⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩⇩

Alternative

▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲

 

I 2c afrikaner now. (Redirected from Broederbond) Part of a series on Apartheid Events 1948 general election Coloured vote constitutional crisis 1956 Treason Trial Sharpeville massacre Rivonia Trial Soweto uprising Church Street bombing Trojan Horse Incident Khotso House bombing Cape Town peace march CODESA Assassination of Chris Hani Saint James Church massacre Shell House massacre Organisations ANC APLA IFP AWB BBB Black Sash CCB Conservative Party DP ECC FOSATU PP RP PFP HNP MK PAC UDF Broederbond National Party COSATU SACC SADF SAIC SAMA SAP SACP State Security Council People P. W. Botha Steve Biko Mangosuthu Buthelezi F. de Klerk Ruth First Bram Fischer Arthur Goldreich Chris Hani Bantu Holomisa Joel Joffe Ahmed Kathrada Albert Luthuli Winnie Madikizela-Mandela Mac Maharaj D. F. Malan Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Thabo Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Benjamin Moloise Albertina Sisulu Walter Sisulu JG Strijdom Joe Slovo Robert Sobukwe Helen Suzman Adelaide Tambo Oliver Tambo Eugène Terre'Blanche Desmond Tutu H. Verwoerd B. J. Vorster Jacob Zuma Places Bantustan District Six Robben Island Sophiatown South-West Africa Soweto Sun City Vlakplaas Related topics Afrikaner nationalism Apartheid in popular culture Apartheid legislation Cape Qualified Franchise Freedom Charter Sullivan Principles Kairos Document Disinvestment campaign Project Coast Internal resistance to apartheid Music in the movement against apartheid Category v t e This page refers to the Afrikaner Broederbond. For its later incarnation see Afrikanerbond. For the political party formed in 1881 by Rev S. du Toit, see Afrikaner Bond. For the unrelated company, see Brøderbund. The Afrikaner Broederbond (AB) meaning Afrikaner Brotherhood) or Broederbond was a secret, exclusively male and Afrikaner Calvinist organisation in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of Afrikaner interests. It was founded by H. Klopper, H. van der Merwe, D. H. C. du Plessis and Rev. Jozua Naudé [1] in 1918 and was known as Jong Zuid Afrika (Young South Africa) until 1920, when it became the Broederbond. [2] 3] Its large influence within South African political and social life, came to a climax with the rise of apartheid, which was largely designed and implemented by Broederbond members. Between 1948 and 1994, many prominent figures of South African political life, including all leaders of the government, were members of the Afrikaner Broederbond. [2] Origins [ edit] Afrikaner Broederbond leadership in 1918 Described later as an "inner sanctum. 4] an immense informal network of influence. 5] and by Jan Smuts as a "dangerous, cunning, political fascist organization. 6] in 1920 Jong Zuid Afrika, now restyled as the Afrikaner Broederbond, was a grouping of 37 white men of Afrikaner ethnicity, Afrikaans language, and the Calvinist faith, who shared cultural, semi-religious, and deeply political objectives based on traditions and experiences dating back to the arrival of Dutch white settlers, French Huguenots, and German at the Cape in the 17th and 18th centuries and including the dramatic events of the Great Trek in the 1830s and 1840s. Ivor Wilkins and Hans Strydom recount how, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, a leading broeder (brother or member) said: for understandable reasons it was difficult to explain [our] aims…[I]n the beginning people were allowed in…who thought it was just another cultural society. —  Wilkins & Strydom, 1980, p. 45 The precise intentions of the founders are not clear. Was the group intended to counter the dominance of the British and the English language, 7] or to redeem the Afrikaners after their defeat in the Second Anglo-Boer War. [8] Perhaps it sought to protect a culture, build an economy and seize control of a government. [9] The remarks of the organisation's chairman in 1944 offer a slightly different, and possibly more accurate interpretation in the context of the post- Boer War and post- World War I era, when Afrikaners were suffering through a maelstrom of social and political changes: 10] The Afrikaner Broederbond was born out of the deep conviction that the Afrikaner volk has been planted in this country by the Hand of God, destined to survive as a separate volk with its own calling. citation needed] In other words, the traditional, deeply pious Calvinism of the Afrikaners, a pastoral people with a difficult history in South Africa since the mid-17th century, supplied an element of Christian predestination that led to a determination to wrest the country from the English-speaking British and place its future in the hands of the Afrikaans -speaking Afrikaners, whatever that might mean for the large black and mixed-race population. To the old thirst for sovereignty that had prompted the Great Trek into the interior from 1838 on, would be added a new thirst for total independence and Nationalism. These two threads merged to form a "Christian National" civil religion that would dominate South African life from 1948 to 1994. This was the historical context in which the Broederbond emerged. The scorched earth policy of the British during the second Boer War devastated Boer (that is, rural Afrikaner farmer) lands. In British concentration camps, 27 000 Boer women and children had died. The Boer surrender at Vereeniging, though pragmatic, was deeply humiliating. Lord Milner 's inflammatory policy of Anglicisation simply rubbed salt into Afrikaner wounds, and a backlash was inevitable. The National Party and ultimately the Broederbond were the long-term and powerful results. [11] The National Party had been established in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists. It first came to power in 1924. Ten years later, its leader J. B. M. Hertzog and Jan Smuts of the South African Party merged their parties to form the United Party. This angered a contingent of hardline nationalists under D. Malan, who broke away to form the Purified National Party. By the time World War II broke out, resentment of the British had not subsided. Malan's party opposed South Africa's entry into the war on the side of the British; some of its members wanted to support Nazi Germany. Jan Smuts had commanded the British Army in East Africa in World War I and was amenable to backing the Allies a second time. This was the spark Afrikaner nationalism needed. Hertzog, who was in favour of neutrality, quit the United Party when a narrow majority in his cabinet backed Smuts. He started the Afrikaner Party which would amalgamate later with D. Malan's Purified National Party to become the force that would take over South African politics for the next 46 years, until majority rule and Nelson Mandela 's election in 1994. [3] Exposed [ edit] Although the press had maintained a steady trickle of unsourced exposés of the inner workings and membership of the Broederbond since the 1960s, the first comprehensive exposé of the organisation was a book written by Ivor Wilkins and Hans Strydom, The Super-Afrikaners. Inside the Afrikaner Broederbond, first published in 1978. The most notable and discussed section of the book was the last section which consisted of a near-comprehensive list of 7500 Broederbond members. [3] The Broederbond was portrayed as Die Stigting Adriaan Delport (The Adriaan Delport Foundation) in the 1968 South African feature film Die Kandidaat (The Candidate) directed by Jans Rautenbach and produced by Emil Nofal. Leaders [ edit] The chairmen of the Broederbond were: 3] p48 Name Title From To Klopper, H. J. 1918 1924 Left the organization Nicol, W. Rev. 1925 Greijbe, J. H. 1928 Potgieter, J. W. 1930 du Plessis, L. J. Prof. 1932 van Rooy, J. C. 1938 Diederichs, N. Dr. 1942 1952 Thom, H. B. 1960 Meyer, P. J. 1972 Treurnicht, A. P. 1974 Viljoen, G. 1980 Boshoff, C. [12] 1983 de Lange, J. P. [12] 1993 de Beer, T. L. [13] 1994 The Broederbond and Apartheid [ edit] Every Prime Minister and State President in South Africa from 1948 to the end of Apartheid in 1994 was a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond. [2] Once the Herenigde Nasionale Party was in power. English-speaking bureaucrats, soldiers, and state employees were sidelined by reliable Afrikaners, with key posts going to Broederbond members (with their ideological commitment to separatism. The electoral system itself was manipulated to reduce the impact of immigrant English speakers and eliminate that of Coloureds. The Afrikaner Broederbond continued to act in secret, infiltrating and gaining control of the few organisations, such as the South African Agricultural Union (SAAU) which had political power and were opposed to a further escalation of Apartheid policies. [2] Members of political parties right of the National party were not welcome and 200 members were expelled by 1972. [3] 7 In 1983 when the Conservative Party was founded with Andries Treurnicht as leader, all Broederbond members who belonged to the newly formed party was no longer welcome in the Bond anymore. Treurnicht, C. Boshoff and HJ Klopper previous chairmen left the organization. Other members like van den Bergh, H. left too. In 1985 the Afrikaner Broederbond realised that change needed to take place in South Africans Politics. Although the government did not talk openly with the banned ANC, it was decided by the organization they should start negotiating. On 8 June 1986 JP de Lange, the then chairman met Thabo Mbeki in New York for a five-hour meeting. It was a meeting held at a conference organised by the Ford Foundation. The meeting was just between de Lange and Mbeki, but at the conference other ANC members Mac Maharaj, Seretse Choabi, Charles Villa-Vicencio, and Peggy Dulany were present. [14] P. Botha also left the Broederbond after his retirement. Companies with Broederbond credentials [ edit] ABSA, formed by amalgamation of United, Allied, Trust and Volkskas banks, the latter of which was established by the Broederbond in 1934 and whose chairman was also the Broederbond chairman at the time. ADS, 15] formerly Altech Defence Systems Remgro, formerly Rembrandt Ltd., former holding company of Volkskas. Notable members [ edit] Prof. Theunis Roux Botha Former and last Rector of the Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit. D. Malan Former Prime Minister. H. Verwoerd Former Prime Minister. J. G. Strijdom Former Prime Minister. B. Vorster, Former Prime Minister and State President. Dr J. S. Gericke, Vice-Chancellor Stellenbosch University Pik Botha, former Minister of Foreign Affairs H. Thom, historian and former Rector of Stellenbosch University. G. Moerdijk Afrikaans architect best known for designing the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria. [16] 17] Tienie Groenewald, retired Defence Force general. Barend Johannes van der Walt, former ambassador to Canada. Dr. Pieter Johannes Potgieter Stofberg, former politician, billionaire businessman and famous doctor. P. Botha, former Minister of Defence and Prime Minister. He left the Broederbond. Anton Rupert, billionaire entrepreneur and businessman; a member in the 1940s, but eventually dismissed it as an "absurdity" and left the organization. [18] Marthinus van Schalkwyk, former member of the youth wing of the Broederbond, the last leader of the National Party and former minister of tourism in the ANC government of Jacob Zuma. Tom de Beer, recruited 30 years ago, now chairman of new Afrikanerbond. Nico Smith, Dutch Reformed Church missionary who, as a former insider, wrote retrospectively about the Afrikaner Broederbond in a book [19] F. De Klerk Former South African State President and leader of the National Party "Lang" Hendrik van den Bergh The South African head of state security apparatus during the Apartheid regime, and close friend of former South African Prime Minister B. Vorster left the Bond. References [ edit] "Mormonen voor vrede en gerechtigheid – Robert Poort – April 2006. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. ^ a b c d "Jong Suid Afrika – founded in June 1918. ^ a b c d e Wilkins, Ivor; Strydom, Hans (1978. Super-Afrikaners: Inside the Afrikaner Broederbond. Jonathan Ball. ISBN   9780868500089. ^ The Security Man" Time, 23 September 1966 ^ O'Meara, D (1983) Volkskapitalisme: Class, capital and ideology in the development of Afrikaner Nationalism 1934–1948, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, p. 64 ^ Jemison, EL (2004. The Nazi influence in the formation of apartheid in South Africa" PDF) The Concord Review, 15 (1) 75–103 ^ Broederbond's Big Brother Act" Time, 21 November 1977 ^ Walton, C (2004. Bond of broeders: Anton Hartman and music in an apartheid state" Musical Times, Summer ^ Afrikaner Broederbond. ^ Schönteich, M; Boshoff, H (March 2003. Volk' Faith and Fatherland. The Security Threat Posed by the White Right" Institute of Security Studies. Monograph., No 81, archived from the original on 13 March 2007 ^ Bunting, B. (1969. The Rise of the South African Reich. African National Congress. Archived from the original on 18 May 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007. ^ a b van Wyk, AH (2005. Die rol van die verligtes in die Nasionale Party in die politieke ontmagtiging van die Afrikaner, 1966–1994 [ The Role of the enlightened ones (verligtes) in the National Party in the political disempowerment of the Afrikaaner 1966-1944] Masters) in Afrikaans. University of Pretoria. hdl: 2263/28811. ^ Die Nuwe Afrikaner-Broederbond" Beeld, p. 13, 30 November 1993, archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 27 September 2007 ^ Savage, M. "A chronology of meetings between South Africans and the ANC in exile 1983-2000. SAHO. Retrieved 31 August 2018. ^ African Defence Systems. African Defence Systems. Archived from the original on 1 April 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2017. ^ Fisher, R. (2006. Moerdijk and the shadow of Baker. South African Journal of Art History. 21 (1) 70–78. hdl: 10520/EJC93926. ^ Jooste, Johan K. (2001. An appraisal of selected examples of Gerhard Moerdijk's work (18901958. 15 (1) 68–84. hdl: 2263/14438. ^ The Guardian. Monday 23 January 2006. Obituary: Anton Rupert. ^ Smith, N. (2009) Afrikaner Broederbond: Belewings van die binnekant. Lapa Uitgewers. Pretoria ISBN   978-0-7993-4496-7 Further reading [ edit] On the Afrikaner youth today and the Broederbond crutch – Afrikaans On the Native Club and the Broederbond Membership numbers 6800 to 12000 with 450 branches Tom de Beer on formation of new Afrikanerbond. Dr JS Gericke/Kosie Gericke Vice-Chancellor Stellenbosch University.

Iafrikan. 1 nomination. See more awards  » Photos Add Image Add an image Do you have any images for this title? Edit Storyline Follows four generations of South African Boers as they grapple with their identity as white farmers in a post-Apartheid South Africa, where land ownership is highly contentious and violence and racism are endemic. Written by Anonymous Plot Summary, Add Synopsis Details Release Date: November 2013 (Netherlands) See more  » Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs  ».

I 2c afrikaner back. I 2c afrikaner never. (Redirected from Africander) Afrikaner Afrikaner cow grazing Other names Africander Country of origin South Africa Distribution South Africa, Australia, Zimbabwe Use Beef Traits Weight Male: 820–1, 090kg Female: 450–600kg Height Male: 152cm Female: 152cm Coat Red Horn status Horned Cattle Bos primigenius The Afrikaner, also known as the Africander, is a breed of taurine-indicine ( Sanga. 1] cattle indigenous to South Africa. [2] Huge herds of Sanga type cattle were herded by the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) when the Dutch established the Cape Colony in 1652. History [ edit] It is believed that the ancestors of Afrikaner cattle originated on the Asian steppes, before migrating into Africa about 2000 years ago. Cattle moved gradually southwards through the continent. [2] Afrikaners share coancestry with the Nguni and Drakensberger breeds. They most likely diverged 655–960 years ago. [3] Anecdotal evidence from Portuguese sailors suggest that herds of Afrikaner-like cattle had been kept by the Khoikhoi since at least the 15th Century. [2] The breed almost became extinct in the early 20th century during the Second Boer War, their numbers depleted through destruction and due to an outbreak of Rinderpest [2] that halved the country's total cattle population. [4] After the war, programs were put in place to improve the breed. [5] In 1912, the first Afrikaner studbook was formed in South Africa in order to control the breed's development. However, due to the recently depleted numbers of Afrikaner cattle, a high degree of inbreeding occurred at this time. [2] In 1923, it was proposed that Afrikaners be sent to the United States, 6] and in 1932 the US government imported a herd to introduce new blood to the Gulf Coast. [7] In 1929, a bull and two cows (one a calf) were gifted to the King George V by the Africander Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa. [8] The first five Afrikaners arrived in Australia in 1953 and were taken to the CSIRO's Belmont station for research into their adaptability to the Australian climate. [9] They were imported from Texas and Florida. [10] During the first half of the 20th century, Afrikaners were being bred to reduce the size of their hump, as this was unsightly to farmers used to the taurine cattle shape. [11] The Afrikaner was the most abundant cattle breed in South Africa until the 1970s, however problems associated with inbreeding, lowered fertility and decreased reproductive period in cows decreased their popularity among local farmers. Crossbreeding with exotic cattle breeds may have also contributed to the decline in population numbers, 1] as well as the introduction of the Brahman to southern Africa. [12] Breed Characteristics [ edit] Afrikaners are usually deep red. They have the small cervices-thoracic hump typical of Sanga cattle. The Afrikaner is a well-muscled breed, with long legs and a shallow body. They have long, lateral horns that turn upwards, although these are often polled in commercial operations. Bulls weigh 820–1, 090 kg, and cows weigh 450–600 kg. The legs are slightly sickle shaped. They have good resistance to tick-borne diseases. They are well adapted to the local hot, arid conditions, 2] as the sweat glands in their skin are more active than those of taurine cattle. This makes them more tolerant of heat than European breeds. [13] 14] They are more economical to keep, and a greater number of Afrikaners can be kept on the same plot of land as European cattle. [2] They have a good temperament and are easy to handle. [15] Afrikaners have good fertility, and can continue to calve over the age of 16 years, 2] with records showing cows calving at 21. [8] The cows are very maternal, and one female will often care for a number of calves while their mothers graze elsewhere. [2] They have few calving problems, due to the structure of their hindquarters and small calf sizes (30–35 kg. 15] They have a low calf mortality rate. [2] There is a medium to high degree of genetic variation within this breed with a low inbreeding coefficient, despite the historic decline in numbers. [1] Uses [ edit] The Khoikhoi used the Afrikaners for meat and milk. Afrikaners were used primarily as draught animals after European settlement, often driven in large teams [16] with as many as 14 animals. [17] They were bred and developed to better suit this purpose, and were prized by the voortrekkers. [8] They were also used as dairy cows, though less commonly, producing higher butterfat contents than other cattle breeds, without the need for supplementary feed. [18] It was Afrikaner oxen which drew the wagons that carried the Voortrekkers on the Great Trek. An Afrikander Wagon Transport in the Transvaal Commercial [ edit] Afrikaners are used commercially to produce beef, and are often crossbred with other breeds in order to improve meat quality, particularly in regards to tenderness, as well as their greater ability to add weight on poor quality forage. The South African breed society promotes the use of Afrikaners as a dam line for crossbreeding. [2] Crossbreeding [ edit] Crossbreeding with Afrikaners increases the heat tolerance of taurine breeds. [13] Bonsmara cattle are the result of crossing Afrikaners with Herefords and Shorthorns. They were developed during the 1960s. [3] Belmont Red cattle are the result of crossing Afrikaners with Herefords and Shorthorns by the CSIRO in Rockhampton, Queensland. They were bred in an effort to produce a breed that was better suited to beef production in hot, dry areas. [19] References [ edit] a b c Pienaar, L; Grobler, J; Neser, F; Scholtz, M; Swart, H; Ehlers, K; Marx, M (2014. Genetic diversity in selected stud and commercial herds of the Afrikaner cattle breed. South African Journal of Animal Science. Retrieved May 21, 2016. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "History. The Afrikaner Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa. Retrieved May 20, 2016. ^ a b Makina, Sithembile (2015. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds. Frontiers in Genetics. 6: 337. doi: 10. 3389/fgene. 2015. 00337. PMC   4664654. PMID   26648975. ^ South African Cattle. Clarence and Richmond Examiner. May 28, 1901. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ The Rural Industries of South Africa. Advocate. November 24, 1906. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Kelpies. The Land. July 10, 1923. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Beef Cattle World and Meat Markets. The Farmer and Settler. January 2, 1932. Retrieved May 23, 2016 – via Trove. ^ a b c "Africander Cattle: A History of the Breed. Chronicle. July 11, 1929. Retrieved May 23, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Test Cattle for Belmont. Morning Bulletin. January 16, 1953. Retrieved May 23, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Stud Cattle For Tests. The Age. January 17, 1953. Retrieved May 23, 2016 – via Trove. ^ B, R (October 4, 1941. Africander Cattle Might Do Well in NT. The Australasian. Retrieved May 23, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Beffa, L; van Wyk, J; Erasmus, G (2009. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle 1. Environmental factors affecting calf growth traits. Retrieved May 22, 2016. ^ a b Vercoe, J; Frisch, J; Moran, J (1972. Apparent digestibility, nitrogen utilization, water metabolism and heat tolerance of Brahman cross, Africander cross and Shorthorn x Hereford steers. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 79: 71–74. 1017/s0021859600025375. ^ Vercoe, J (1970. The fasting metabolism of Brahman, Africander and Hereford x Shorthorn cattle" PDF. British Journal of Nutrition. 24 (3) 599–606. 1079/bjn19700061. ^ a b "Why Invest with us. Retrieved May 20, 2016. ^ Haggard, H (August 10, 1889. King Solomon's Mines. Darling Downs Gazette. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Two Warnings. Cobram Courier. March 9, 1893. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Africander Dairy Cows. November 7, 1896. Retrieved May 22, 2016 – via Trove. ^ Rare calf born at S. A. school. Victor Harbour Times. June 16, 1977. Retrieved April 27, 2017. Felius, Marleen (1985) Genus Bos: Cattle Breeds of the World MSO-AGVET (Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway, N. J., OCLC 13726656 Mason, I. L. (1996) A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties (4th ed. C. B International, Wallingford, Oxofordshire, UK, ISBN   0-85199-102-5 Timmins, Lisa (ed. 1989) Handbook of Australian Livestock (3rd ed. Australian Meat & Livestock Corporation, Sydney, ISBN   0-642-87194-9 External links [ edit] The modern Afrikaner" The South African Stud Book and Livestock Improvement Association.

YouTube. I 2c afrikaner live. I african name. I 2c afrikaner my heart. I african fashions in dallas texas. I 2c afrikaner song. For peoples and persons from Africa, see Africans. Afrikaans Pronunciation [afriˈkɑːns] Native to South Africa, Namibia Ethnicity Afrikaners Cape Coloureds Native speakers 7. 2 million (2016) 1] 10. 3 million L2 speakers in South Africa (2002) 2] Language family Indo-European Germanic West Germanic Low Franconian Dutch Afrikaans Writing system Latin using Afrikaans alphabet Afrikaans Braille Signed forms Signed Afrikaans [3] Official status Official language in   South Africa Recognised minority language in   Namibia Regulated by Die Taalkommissie Language codes ISO 639-1 af ISO 639-2 afr ISO 639-3 afr Glottolog afri1274 [4] Linguasphere 52-ACB-ba Regions shaded dark blue represent areas of concentrated Afrikaans-speaking communities This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Afrikaans. 5] 6] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular [7] 8] of Holland ( Hollandic dialect) 9] 10] spoken by the largely Dutch settlers (and then by the native Africans who associated with them) in the south-west of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. [11] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch. Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. [note 1] Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic -type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. [12] There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form. [13] With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13. 5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. [14] Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 15 and 23 million. [note 2] It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, and is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language. [note 3] It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape —and the first language of 75. 8% of Coloured South Africans (4. 8 million people) 60. 8% of White South Africans (2. 7 million) 4. 6% of Asian South Africans (58, 000 people) and 1. 5% of Black South Africans (600, 000 people. 15] Etymology [ edit] The term is ultimately derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch. 16] It was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans in its earlier days. However, it has also been variously described as a Dutch-based creole or as a partially creolised language. [17] History [ edit] Origin [ edit] The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century. [18] 19] As early as the mid-18th century and as recently as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language" Afrikaans: kombuistaal) lacking the prestige accorded, for example, even by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands ( Cape Dutch" i. e. Afrikaans) as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt, gebroken and onbeschaafd Hollands ( mutilated/broken/uncivilised Dutch. as well as verkeerd Nederlands ( incorrect Dutch. 20] 21] Hottentot Dutch ' Language family Dutch-based pidgin Language codes ISO 639-3 None ( mis) Glottolog hott1234 [22] Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: 23] Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to Southern Africa, and 'Hottentot Dutch. 22] a pidgin that descended from 'Foreigner Talk' and ultimately from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. Development [ edit] A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces (now Netherlands and Flanders. 24] though up to one-sixth of the community was also of French Huguenot origin, and a seventh from Germany. [25] African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans. The slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India, Madagascar, and the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia. 26] A number were also indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as interpreters, domestic servants, and labourers. Many free and enslaved women married, cohabited with, or were victims of sexual violence from the male Dutch settlers. M. F. Valkhoff argued that 75% of children born to female slaves in the Dutch Cape Colony between 1652 and 1672 had a Dutch father. [27] Some consider this the origin of the ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, who adopted various forms of speech utilising a Dutch vocabulary. Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman argue that Afrikaans' development as a separate language was "heavily conditioned by nonwhites who learned Dutch imperfectly as a second language. 28] Beginning in about 1815, Afrikaans started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim schools in South Africa, written with the Arabic alphabet: see Arabic Afrikaans. Later, Afrikaans, now written with the Latin script, started to appear in newspapers and political and religious works in around 1850. [18] In 1875, a group of Afrikaans-speakers from the Cape formed the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaanders ( Society for Real Afrikaners. 18] and published a number of books in Afrikaans including grammars, dictionaries, religious materials and histories. In 1925, Afrikaans was recognised by the South African government as a real language, rather than simply a slang version of Dutch proper. [18] Recognition [ edit] Afrikaans was considered a Dutch dialect in South Africa until the early 20th century, when it became recognised as a distinct language under South African law, alongside Standard Dutch, which it eventually replaced as an official language. [29] Before the Boer wars, and indeed for some time afterwards, Afrikaans was regarded as inappropriate for educated discourse. Rather, Afrikaans was described derogatorily as "a kitchen language" or "a bastard jargon. suitable for communication mainly between the Boers and their servants. 30. better source needed] On 8 May 1925, twenty-three years after the Second Boer War ended, 30] the Official Languages of the Union Act of 1925 was passed—mostly due to the efforts of the Afrikaans language movement —at a joint sitting of the House of Assembly and the Senate, in which the Afrikaans language was declared a variety of Dutch. [31] The Constitution of 1961 reversed the position of Afrikaans and Dutch, so that English and Afrikaans were the official languages, and Afrikaans was deemed to include Dutch. The Constitution of 1983 removed any mention of Dutch altogether. The Afrikaans Language Monument is located on a hill overlooking Paarl in the Western Cape Province. Officially opened on 10 October 1975, 32] it was erected on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Society of Real Afrikaners, 33] and the 50th anniversary of Afrikaans being declared an official language of South Africa in distinction to Dutch. Standardisation [ edit] The linguist Paul Roberge suggested the earliest 'truly Afrikaans' texts are doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. citation needed] Printed material among the Afrikaners at first used only standard European Dutch. By the mid-19th century, more and more were appearing in Afrikaans, which was very much still regarded as a set of regional dialects. In 1861, L. H. Meurant published his Zamenspraak tusschen Klaas Waarzegger en Jan Twyfelaar ( Conversation between Claus Truthsayer and John Doubter. which is considered by some to be the first authoritative Afrikaans text. citation needed] Abu Bakr Effendi also compiled his Arabic Afrikaans Islamic instruction book between 1862 and 1869, although this was only published and printed in 1877. The first Afrikaans grammars and dictionaries were published in 1875 by the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaners ( Society for Real Afrikaners" in Cape Town. citation needed] The main Afrikaans dictionary is the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT. Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language) which is as yet incomplete owing to the scale of the project, but the one-volume dictionary in household use is the Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (HAT. The official orthography of Afrikaans is the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls, compiled by Die Taalkommissie. The Afrikaans Bible [ edit] The Afrikaner religion had stemmed from the Protestant practices of the Reformed church of Holland during the 17th century, later on being influenced in South Africa by British ministries during the 1800s. [34] A landmark in the development of the language was the translation of the whole Bible into Afrikaans. While significant advances had been made in the textual criticism of the Bible, especially the Greek New Testament, the 1933 translation followed the textus receptus and was closely akin to the Statenbijbel. Before this, most Cape Dutch-Afrikaans speakers had to rely on the Dutch Statenbijbel. This Statenvertaling had its origins with the Synod of Dordrecht of 1618 and was thus in an archaic form of Dutch. This was hard for Dutch and Cape Dutch speakers to understand, and increasingly unintelligible for Afrikaans speakers. C. P. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit were the first Afrikaans Bible translators. Important landmarks in the translation of the Scriptures were in 1878 with C. Hoogehout's translation of the Evangelie volgens Markus ( Gospel of Mark, lit. Gospel according to Mark) however, this translation was never published. The manuscript is to be found in the South African National Library, Cape Town. The first official translation of the entire Bible into Afrikaans was in 1933 by J. D. du Toit, E. E. van Rooyen, J. Kestell, H. C. Fourie, and BB Keet. [35] 36] This monumental work established Afrikaans as 'n suiwer en ordentlike taal, that is "a pure and proper language" for religious purposes, especially amongst the deeply Calvinist Afrikaans religious community that previously had been sceptical of a Bible translation that varied from the Dutch version that they were used to. In 1983, a fresh translation marked the 50th anniversary of the 1933 version and provided a much-needed revision. The final editing of this edition was done by E. Groenewald, A. van Zyl, P. A. Verhoef, J. L. Helberg and W. Kempen. This translation was influenced by Eugene Nida's theory of dynamic-equavalence which focussed on finding the nearest equivalent in the receptor language to the idea that the Greek, Hebrew or Aramaic wanted to convey. The challenge to this type of translation is that it doesn't take into account that there are shifts in meaning in the receptor language. citation needed] A new translation, Die Bybel: n Direkte Vertaling is currently under preparation. It will be the first truly ecumenical translation of the Bible in Afrikaans as translators from various churches, including the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, are involved. citation needed] Various commercial translations of the Bible in Afrikaans have also appeared since the 1990s, such as Die Boodskap and the Nuwe Lewende Vertaling. Most of these translations were published by Christelike Uitgewersmaatskappy (CUM. citation needed. vague] In 2019, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was released in Afrikaans, 37] both printed and electronic versions. Classification [ edit] Indo-European languages Germanic West Germanic Low Franconian Dutch Afrikaans, Dutch-based creoles Afrikaans belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages. Its closest relative is the mutually-intelligible mother language, Dutch. Other West Germanic languages related to Afrikaans are German, English, the Frisian languages, and the unstandardised languages Low German and Yiddish. Geographic distribution [ edit] Statistics [ edit] The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Afrikaans at home.    0–20%    20–40%    40–60%    60–80%    80–100% Country Speakers Percentage of speakers Year Reference Australia 43, 741 0. 61% 2016 [38] Botswana 8, 082 0. 11% 2011 Canada 23, 410 0. 32% 39] England and   Wales 11, 247 0. 16% 40] Mauritius 36 0. 0005% Namibia 219, 760 3. 05% New Zealand 21, 123 0. 29% 2006 South Africa 6, 855, 082 95. 06% United States 28, 406 0. 39% 41] Argentina 650 0. 009% 2019 [42] Total 7, 211, 537 Sociolinguistics [ edit] Some state that instead of Afrikaners, which refers to an ethnic group, the terms Afrikaanses or Afrikaanssprekendes (lit. Afrikaans speakers) should be used for people of any ethnic origin who speak Afrikaans. Linguistic identity has not yet established which terms shall prevail, and all three are used in common parlance. [43] Afrikaans terms like boerseun (farm boy) and boeremeisie (farm girl) became popular among young white Afrikaners for expressing ethnic and cultural pride, regardless of whether or not they actually grew up on a farm. The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in South Africa: density of Afrikaans home-language speakers.    <1 /km 2    1–3 /km 2    3–10 /km 2    10–30 /km 2    30–100 /km 2    100–300 /km 2    300–1000 /km 2    1000–3000 /km 2    >3000 /km 2 The geographical distribution of Afrikaans in Namibia. Afrikaans is also widely spoken in Namibia. Before independence, Afrikaans had equal status with German as an official language. Since independence in 1990, Afrikaans has had constitutional recognition as a national, but not official, language. [44] 45] There is a much smaller number of Afrikaans speakers among Zimbabwe's white minority, as most have left the country since 1980. Afrikaans was also a medium of instruction for schools in Bophuthatswana, an Apartheid-era Bantustan. [46] Eldoret in Kenya was founded by Afrikaners. [47] Many South Africans living and working in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, the UAE and Kuwait are also Afrikaans-speaking. They have access to Afrikaans websites, news sites such as and Sake24, and radio broadcasts over the web, such as those from Radio Sonder Grense, Bokradio and Radio Pretoria. Afrikaans has been influential in the development of South African English. Many Afrikaans loanwords have found their way into South African English, such as bakkie ( pickup truck. braai ( barbecue. naartjie ( tangerine. tekkies (American "sneakers" British "trainers" Canadian "runners. A few words in standard English are derived from Afrikaans, such as aardvark (lit. "earth pig. trek ( pioneering journey" in Afrikaans lit. "pull" but used also for "migrate. spoor ( animal track. veld ( Southern African grassland" in Afrikaans, lit. "field. commando from Afrikaans kommando meaning small fighting unit, boomslang ( tree snake" and apartheid ( segregation" more accurately "apartness" or "the state or condition of being apart. In 1976, secondary-school pupils in Soweto began a rebellion in response to the government's decision that Afrikaans be used as the language of instruction for half the subjects taught in non-White schools (with English continuing for the other half. Although English is the mother tongue of only 8. 2% of the population, it is the language most widely understood, and the second language of a majority of South Africans. [48] Afrikaans is more widely spoken than English in the Northern and Western Cape provinces, several hundred kilometres from Soweto. [49] The Black community's opposition to Afrikaans and preference for continuing English instruction was underlined when the government rescinded the policy one month after the uprising: 96% of Black schools chose English (over Afrikaans or native languages) as the language of instruction. [49] Also, due to Afrikaans being viewed as the "language of the white oppressor" by some, pressure has been increased to remove Afrikaans as a teaching language in South African universities, resulting in bloody student protests in 2015. [50] 51] 52] Under South Africa's Constitution of 1996, Afrikaans remains an official language, and has equal status to English and nine other languages. The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages. In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways dropped its Afrikaans name Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens from its livery. Similarly, South Africa's diplomatic missions overseas now display the name of the country only in English and their host country's language, and not in Afrikaans. In spite of these moves, the language has remained strong, and Afrikaans newspapers and magazines continue to have large circulation figures. Indeed, the Afrikaans-language general-interest family magazine Huisgenoot has the largest readership of any magazine in the country. [53] In addition, a pay-TV channel in Afrikaans called KykNet was launched in 1999, and an Afrikaans music channel, MK ( Musiek kanaal) lit. 'Music Channel. in 2005. A large number of Afrikaans books are still published every year, mainly by the publishers Human & Rousseau, Tafelberg Uitgewers, Struik, and Protea Boekhuis. The Afrikaans film trilogy Bakgat (first released in 2008) caused a reawakening of the Afrikaans film Industry (which has been dead since the mid to late 1990s) and Belgian-born singer Karen Zoid 's debut single " Afrikaners is Plesierig. released 2001) caused a resurgence in the Afrikaans music industry as well as gave rise to the Afrikaans Rock genre. Afrikaans has two monuments erected in its honour. The first was erected in Burgersdorp, South Africa, in 1893, and the second, nowadays better-known Afrikaans Language Monument ( Afrikaanse Taalmonument) was built in Paarl, South Africa, in 1975. When the British design magazine Wallpaper described Afrikaans as "one of the world's ugliest languages" in its September 2005 article about the monument, 54] South African billionaire Johann Rupert (chairman of the Richemont Group) responded by withdrawing advertising for brands such as Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Montblanc and Alfred Dunhill from the magazine. [55] The author of the article, Bronwyn Davies, was an English -speaking South African. Mutual intelligibility with Dutch [ edit] An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is ultimately of Dutch origin, 56] 57] 58] and there are few lexical differences between the two languages. [59] Afrikaans has a considerably more regular morphology, 60] grammar, and spelling. [61] There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages, 60] 62] 63] particularly in written form. [61] 64] 65] Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages, Portuguese, 66] and Bantu languages, 67] and Afrikaans has also been significantly influenced by South African English. [68] Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round. [65] Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. [65] In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian [69] or between Danish and Swedish. [65] The South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualise the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between (Standard) Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. [70] Current status [ edit] Use of Afrikaans as a first language by province Province 1996 [71] 2001 [71] 2011 [71] Western Cape 58. 5% 55. 3% 49. 7% Eastern Cape 9. 8% 9. 6% 10. 6% Northern Cape 57. 2% 56. 6% 53. 8% Free State 14. 4% 11. 9% 12. 7% KwaZulu-Natal 1. 6% 1. 5% North West 8. 0% Gauteng 15. 6% 13. 6% 12. 4% Mpumalanga 7. 1% 5. 5% 7. 2% Limpopo 2. 6% 14. 4% 72] 13. 3% 73] 13. 5% 14] Post-apartheid South Africa has seen a loss of preferential treatment by the government for Afrikaans, in terms of education, social events, media (TV and radio) and general status throughout the country, given that it now shares its place as official language with ten other languages. Nevertheless, Afrikaans remains more prevalent in the media – radio, newspapers and television [74] – than any of the other official languages, except English. More than 300 book titles in Afrikaans are published annually. [75] South African census figures suggest a growing number of speakers in all nine provinces, a total of 6. 85 million in 2011 compared to 5. 98 million a decade earlier. [76] The South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) project that a growing majority will be Coloured Afrikaans speakers. [77] Afrikaans speakers experience higher employment rates than other South African language groups, though as of 2012 half a million remain unemployed. [76] Despite the challenges of demotion and emigration that it faces in South Africa, the Afrikaans vernacular remains competitive, being popular in DSTV pay channels and several internet sites, while generating high newspaper and music CD sales. A resurgence in Afrikaans popular music since the late 1990s has invigorated the language, especially among a younger generation of South Africans. A recent trend is the increased availability of pre-school educational CDs and DVDs. Such media also prove popular with the extensive Afrikaans-speaking expatriate communities who seek to retain language proficiency in a household context. After years of slumber, Afrikaans language cinema is showing signs of new vigour. The 2007 film Ouma se slim kind, the first full-length Afrikaans movie since Paljas in 1998, is seen as the dawn of a new era in Afrikaans cinema. Several short films have been created and more feature-length movies, such as Poena is Koning and Bakgat (both in 2008) have been produced, besides the 2011 Afrikaans-language film Skoonheid, which was the first Afrikaans film to screen at the Cannes Film Festival. The film Platteland was also released in 2011. [78] The Afrikaans Film industry started gaining international recognition via the likes of big Afrikaans Hollywood film stars, like Charlize Theron ( Monster) and Sharlto Copley ( District 9) promoting their mother tongue. Afrikaans seems to be returning to the SABC. SABC3 announced early in 2009 that it would increase Afrikaans programming due to the "growing Afrikaans-language market and [their] need for working capital as Afrikaans advertising is the only advertising that sells in the current South African television market. In April 2009, SABC3 started screening several Afrikaans-language programmes. [79] Further latent support for the language derives from its de-politicised image in the eyes of younger-generation South Africans, who less and less often view it as "the language of the oppressor. citation needed] Indeed, there is a groundswell movement within Afrikaans to be inclusive, and to promote itself along with the other indigenous official languages. In Namibia, the percentage of Afrikaans speakers declined from 11. 4% 2001 Census) to 10. 4% 2011 Census. The major concentrations are in Hardap (41. 0. ǁKaras (36. 1. Erongo (20. 5. Khomas (18. 5. Omaheke (10. 0. Otjozondjupa (9. 4. Kunene (4. 2. and Oshikoto (2. 3. 80] Many native speakers of Bantu languages and English also speak Afrikaans as a second language. It is widely taught in South African schools, with about 10. 3 million second-language students. [1] Even in KwaZulu-Natal (where there are relatively few Afrikaans home-speakers) the majority of pupils opt for Afrikaans as their first additional language because it is regarded as easier than Zulu. [81] Afrikaans is offered at many universities outside South Africa, for example in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Russia and America. [82] Grammar [ edit] In Afrikaans grammar, there is no distinction between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have' infinitive form present indicative form English German wees is zijn ( wezen) be sein ( gewesen) hê het hebben have haben In addition, verbs do not conjugate differently depending on the subject. For example, Afrikaans ek is ik ben I am ich bin jy/u is jij/u bent you are (sing. ) du bist/Sie sind hy/sy/dit is hij/zij/het is he/she/it is er/sie/es ist ons is wij zijn we are wir sind julle is jullie zijn you are (plur. ) ihr seid hulle is zij zijn they are sie sind Only a handful of Afrikaans verbs have a preterite, namely the auxiliary wees ( to be. the modal verbs, and the verb dink ( to think. The preterite of mag ( may" is rare in contemporary Afrikaans. present past ek was ik was I was ich war ek kan ek kon ik kan ik kon I can I could ich kann ich konnte ek moet ek moes ik moet ik moest I must (I had to) ich muss ich musste ek wil ek wou ik wil ik wilde/wou I want to I wanted to ich will ich wollte ek sal ek sou ik zal ik zou I shall I should ich werde ich wurde ek mag (ek mog) ik mag ik mocht I may I might ich mag ich mochte ek dink ek dog ik denk ik dacht I think I thought ich denke ich dachte All other verbs use the perfect tense, het + past participle (ge. for the past. Therefore, there is no distinction in Afrikaans between I drank and I have drunk. (Also in colloquial German, the past tense is often replaced with the perfect. ) ek het gedrink ik dronk I drank ich trank (formal) ik heb gedronken I have drunk ich habe getrunken When telling a longer story, Afrikaans speakers usually avoid the perfect and simply use the present tense, or historical present tense instead (as is possible, but less common, in English as well. A particular feature of Afrikaans is its use of the double negative; it is classified in Afrikaans as ontkennende vorm and is something that is absent from the other West Germanic standard languages. For example, Afrikaans: Hy kan nie Afrikaans praat nie, lit.   'He can not Afrikaans speak not' Dutch: Hij spreekt Afrikaans niet. English: He can not speak Afrikaans. He can't speak Afrikaans. German: Er kann kein Afrikaans sprechen. Both French and San origins have been suggested for double negation in Afrikaans. While double negation is still found in Low Franconian dialects in West-Flanders and in some "isolated" villages in the centre of the Netherlands (such as Garderen) it takes a different form, which is not found in Afrikaans. The following is an example: Afrikaans: Ek wil nie dit doen nie. lit. I want not this do not. ) Dutch: Ik wil dit niet doen. English: I do not want to do this. German: Ich will dies nicht tun. * Compare with Ek wil nie dit doen nie, which changes the meaning to "I want not to do this. Whereas Ek wil nie dit doen nie emphasizes a lack of desire to act, Ek wil dit nie doen nie emphasizes the act itself. The -ne was the Middle Dutch way to negate but it has been suggested that since -ne became highly non-voiced, nie or niet was needed to complement the -ne. With time the -ne disappeared in most Dutch dialects. The double negative construction has been fully grammaticalised in standard Afrikaans and its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as the examples below show: Dutch (literally translated) More correct Dutch Ek het nie geweet dat hy sou kom nie. Ik heb niet geweten dat hij zou komen. Ik wist niet dat hij zou komen. I did not know that he would come. Ek het geweet dat hy nie sou kom nie. Ik heb geweten dat hij niet zou komen. Ik wist dat hij niet zou komen. I knew (did know) that he would not come. Ek het nie geweet dat hy nie sou kom nie. Ik heb niet geweten dat hij niet zou komen. Ik wist niet dat hij niet zou komen. I did not know that he would not come. Hy sal nie kom nie, want hy is siek. [note 4] Hij zal niet komen, want hij is ziek. Hij komt niet, want hij is ziek. He will not come, as he is sick. Dis (Dit is) nie so moeilik om Afrikaans te leer nie. Het is niet zo moeilijk (om) Afrikaans te leren. It is not so difficult to learn Afrikaans. A notable exception to this is the use of the negating grammar form that coincides with negating the English present participle. In this case there is only a single negation. Afrikaans: Hy is in die hospitaal, maar hy eet nie. Dutch: Hij is in het ziekenhuis, maar hij eet niet. English: He is in [the] hospital, though he eats not. German: Er ist im Krankenhaus, aber er isst nicht. Certain words in Afrikaans arise due to grammar. For example, moet nie, which literally means "must not" usually becomes moenie; although one does not have to write or say it like this, virtually all Afrikaans speakers will change the two words to moenie in the same way as do not shifts to don't in English. The Dutch word het ( it" in English) does not correspond to het in Afrikaans. The Dutch words corresponding to Afrikaans het are heb, hebt, heeft and hebben. heb, hebt, heeft, hebben have, has habe, hast, hat, habt, haben die de, het the die, der, das, den, dem dit it es Phonology [ edit] A voice recording of Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Vowels [ edit] Monophthong phonemes [83] 84] Front Central Back unrounded rounded short long Close i ( iː) y u ( uː) Mid ɛ ɛː œ ( œː) ə ( əː) ɔ ( ɔː) Near-open ( æ) æː) Open a ɑː As phonemes, iː/ and /uː/ occur only in the words spieël /spiːl/ mirror' and koeël /kuːl/ bullet' which used to be pronounced with sequences /i. ə/ and /u. ə/ respectively. In other cases. iː] and [ uː] occur as allophones of, respectively, i/ and /u/ before /r. 85] y/ is phonetically long [ yː] before /r. 86] əː/ is always stressed and occurs only in the word wîe 'wedges. 87] The closest unrounded counterparts of /œ, œː/ are central /ə, əː/ rather than front /ɛ, ɛː. 88] œː, ɔː/ occur only in a few words. [89] As a phoneme, æ/ occurs as an allophone of /ɛ/ before /k, χ, l, r/ though this occurs primarily dialectally, most commonly in the former Transvaal and Free State provinces. [90] Diphthong phonemes [91] 92] Starting point Ending point ɪø, əi ɪə œi, ɔi ʊə œu ai /ɔi, ai/ occur mainly in loanwords. [93] Consonants [ edit] Consonant phonemes Labial Alveolar Post- alveolar Dorsal Glottal Nasal m n ŋ Plosive voiceless p t t͡ʃ k voiced b d ( d͡ʒ) ɡ) Fricative f s ʃ χ v ( z) ʒ ɦ Approximant l j Rhotic r All obstruents at the ends of words are devoiced, so that e. g. a final /d/ is realized as [t. 94] ɡ, dʒ, z/ occur only in loanwords. [ɡ] is also an allophone of /χ/ in some environments. [95] χ/ is most often uvular [ χ ~ ʀ̥. 96] 97] 98] Velar [ x] occurs only in some speakers. [97] r/ is usually an alveolar trill [ r] or tap [ ɾ. 99] In some parts of the former Cape Province, it is realized uvularly, either as a trill [ ʀ] or a fricative [ ʁ. 100] Dialects [ edit] A warning sign in Afrikaans: Gevaar Slagysters or "Danger, Bear Traps. Following early dialectal studies of Afrikaans, it was theorised that three main historical dialects probably existed after the Great Trek in the 1830s. These dialects are the Northern Cape, Western Cape, and Eastern Cape dialects. [101] Northern Cape dialect may have resulted from contact between Dutch settlers and the Khoi-Khoi people between the Great Karoo and the Kunene, and Eastern Cape dialect between the Dutch and the Xhosa. Remnants of these dialects still remain in present-day Afrikaans, although the standardising effect of Standard Afrikaans has contributed to a great levelling of differences in modern times. [102. citation needed] There is also a prison cant, known as soebela or sombela, which is based on Afrikaans, yet heavily influenced by Zulu. This language is used as a secret language in prison and is taught to initiates. [102] Kaapse Afrikaans [ edit] The term Kaapse Afrikaans ( Cape Afrikaans" is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the entire Western Cape dialect; it is more commonly used for a particular sociolect spoken in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. Kaapse Afrikaans was once spoken by all population groups. However, it became increasingly restricted to the Cape Coloured ethnic group in Cape Town and environs. Kaapse Afrikaans is still understood by the large majority of native Afrikaans speakers in South Africa. Kaapse Afrikaans preserves some features more similar to Dutch than to Afrikaans. [103] The 1st person singular pronoun ik as in Dutch as opposed to Afrikaans ek The diminutive endings -tje, pronounced as in Dutch and not as /ki/ as in Afrikaans. The use of the form seg (compare Dutch zegt) as opposed to Afrikaans sê Kaapse Afrikaans has some other features not typically found in Afrikaans. The pronunciation of j, normally /j/ as in Dutch is often a /dz. This is the strongest feature of Kaapse Afrikaans. The insertion of /j/ after /s. t/ and /k/ when followed by /e/ e. kjen as opposed to Standard Afrikaans ken. Kaapse Afrikaans is also characterised by much code-switching between English and Afrikaans, especially in the inner-city and lower socio-economic status areas of Cape Town. An example of characteristic Kaapse Afrikaans: Dutch: En ik zeg (tegen) jullie: wat zoeken jullie hier bij mij? Ik zoek jullie niet! Nee, ga nu weg! Kaapse Afrikaans. En ik seg ve' djille, wat soek djille hie' by my? Ik soek'ie ve' djille nie! Nei, gaat nou weg! Afrikaans: En ek sê vir julle, wat soek julle hier by my? Ek soek julle nie! Nee, gaan nou weg! English (literal. And I say to you, what seek you here by me? I seek you not! No, go now away! English: And I'm telling you, what are you looking for here? I'm not looking for you! No, go away now! Oranjerivierafrikaans [ edit] The term Oranjerivierafrikaans ( Afrikaans of the Orange River" is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the Northern Cape dialect; it is more commonly used for the regional peculiarities of standard Afrikaans spoken in the Upington / Orange River wine district of South Africa. Some of the characteristics of Oranjerivierafrikaans are the plural form -goed ( Ma- goed, meneergoed) variant pronunciation such as in kjerk ( Church" and gjeld ( money" and the ending -se, which indicates possession. Expatriate geolect [ edit] Although Afrikaans is mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia, smaller Afrikaans-speaking populations live in Argentina, 104] Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Lesotho, Malawi, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Eswatini, the UAE, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, the US, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. [1] Most Afrikaans-speaking people living outside Africa are emigrants and their descendants. Because of emigration and migrant labour, more than 100, 000 Afrikaans speakers may live in the United Kingdom (UK. Influences on Afrikaans from other languages [ edit] Malay [ edit] Due to the early settlement of a Cape Malay community in Cape Town, who are now known as Coloureds, numerous Classical Malay words were brought into Afrikaans. Some of these words entered Dutch via people arriving from, what is now known as, Indonesia as part of their colonial heritage. Malay words in Afrikaans include: 105] baie, which means 'very' much' many' from banyak) is a very commonly used Afrikaans word, different from its Dutch equivalent veel or erg. baadjie, Afrikaans for jacket, where Dutch would use jas or vest. The word baadje in Dutch is now considered archaic and only used in written, literary texts. piesang, which means banana. This is different from the common Dutch word banaan. The Indonesian word pisang is also used in Dutch, though usage is more common. Portuguese [ edit] Some words originally came from Portuguese such as sambreel ( umbrella" from the Portuguese sombreiro, kraal ( pen/cattle enclosure" from the Portuguese curral, and mielie ( corn" from milho. These words have become common in South Africa to an extent of being used in many other South African languages. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, like sambreel "parasol. 106] though usage is less common and meanings can slightly differ. Khoisan languages [ edit] dagga, meaning cannabis [105] geitjie, meaning lizard, diminutive adapted from Khoekhoe word [107] gogga, meaning insect, from the Khoisan xo-xo karos, blanket of animal hides kierie walking stick from Khoekhoe [107] Some of these words also exist in Dutch, though with a more specific meaning: assegaai for example means "South-African tribal javelin" 108] and karos means "South-African tribal blanket of animal hides. 109] Bantu languages [ edit] Loanwords from Bantu languages in Afrikaans include the names of indigenous birds, such as mahem and sakaboela, and indigenous plants, such as maroela and tamboekie(gras. 110] fundi, from the Zulu word umfundi meaning "scholar" or "student. 111] but used to mean someone who is a student/expert on a certain subject, i. He is a language fundi. lobola, meaning bride price, from (and referring to) lobolo of the Nguni languages [112] mahem, the grey crowned crane, known in Latin as Balearica regulorum maroela, medium-sized dioecious tree known in Latin as Sclerocarya birrea [113] tamboekiegras, species of thatching grass known as Hyparrhenia [114] tambotie, deciduous tree also known by its Latin name, Spirostachys africana [115] tjaila / tjailatyd, an adaption of the word chaile, meaning "to go home" or "to knock off. 116] French [ edit] The revoking of the Edict of Nantes on 22 October 1685 was a milestone in the history of South Africa, for it marked the beginning of the great Huguenot exodus from France. It is estimated that between 250, 000 and 300, 000 Protestants left France between 1685 and 1700; out of these, according to Louvois, 100, 000 had received military training. A measure of the calibre of these immigrants and of their acceptance by host countries (in particular South Africa) is given by H. V. Morton in his book: In search of South Africa (London, 1948. The Huguenots were responsible for a great linguistic contribution to Afrikaans, particularly in terms of military terminology as many of them fought on the battlefields during the wars of the Great Trek. French advies avis opinion alarm alarme ammunisie munition ammunition amusant funny artillerie artillery ateljee atelier studio bagasie bagage luggage bastion bataljon bataillon battalion battery batterie biblioteek bibliothèque library faktuur facture invoice fort frikkadel fricadelle meatball garnisoen garnison garrison generaal général general granaat grenade infanterie infantry interessant intéressant interesting kaliber calibre caliber kanon canon kanonnier canonier gunner kardoes cartouche cartridge kaptein capitaine captain kolonel colonel kommandeur commandeur commander kwartier quartier quarter lieutenant magasyn magasin magazine manier manière way marsjeer marcher marching meubels meubles furniture militêr militaire militarily morsel morceau piece mortier mortar muit mutiner mew musket mousquet muur mur wall myn mine offisier officier officer orde ordre order papier paper pionier pionnier pioneer plafon plafond ceiling plat flat pont bridge provoos prévôt chief rondte ronde round salvo salve soldaat soldat soldier tante aunt tapyt tapis carpet tros trousse bunch Orthography [ edit] There are many parallels between the Dutch orthography conventions and those used for Afrikaans. There are 26 letters. In Afrikaans, many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch spelling. For example, slechts ( only' in Dutch becomes slegs in Afrikaans. Also, Afrikaans and some Dutch dialects make no distinction between /s/ and /z/ having merged the latter into the former; while the word for "south" is written zuid in Dutch, it is spelled suid in Afrikaans (as well as dialectal Dutch writings) to represent this merger. Similarly, the Dutch digraph ij, normally pronounced as /ɛi/ is written as y, except where it replaces the Dutch suffix –lijk which is pronounced as /lœk/ or /lik/ as in waarschijnlijk > waarskynlik. Another difference is the indefinite article, n in Afrikaans and een in Dutch. "A book" is 'n boek in Afrikaans, whereas it is either een boek or 'n boek in Dutch. This 'n is usually pronounced as just a weak vowel, ə. The diminutive suffix in Afrikaans is -tjie or -djie, whereas in Dutch it is -tje or dje, hence a "bit" is ʼn bie tjie in Afrikaans and bee tje in Dutch. The letters c, q, x, and z occur almost exclusively in borrowings from French, English, Greek and Latin. This is usually because words that had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelled with k and g, respectively, in Afrikaans. Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks, respectively. For example, ekwatoriaal instead of equatoriaal, and ekskuus instead of excuus. The vowels with diacritics in non-loanword Afrikaans are: á, é, è, ê, ë, í, î, ï, ó, ô, ö, ú, û, ü, ý. Diacritics are ignored when alphabetising, though they are still important, even when typing the diacritic forms may be difficult. For example, geëet instead of the 3 e's alongside each other. geeet, which can never occur in Afrikaans, or sê, which translates to "say" whereas se is a possessive form. Initial apostrophes [ edit] A few short words in Afrikaans take initial apostrophes. In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case (except if the entire line is uppercase) and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are 'k, t, n. The last (the indefinite article) is the only apostrophed word that is common in modern written Afrikaans, since the other examples are shortened versions of other words ( ek and het, respectively) and are rarely found outside of a poetic context. [117] Here are a few examples: Apostrophed version Usual version Translation Notes 'k 't Dit gesê Ek het dit gesê I said it Uncommon, more common: Ek't dit gesê 't Jy dit geëet? Het jy dit geëet? Did you eat it? Extremely uncommon 'n Man loop daar A man walks there Standard Afrikaans pronounces 'n as a schwa vowel. The apostrophe and the following letter are regarded as two separate characters, and are never written using a single glyph, although a single character variant of the indefinite article appears in Unicode, ʼn. Table of characters [ edit] For more on the pronunciation of the letters below, see Help:IPA/Afrikaans. Afrikaans letters and pronunciation Grapheme IPA Examples and Notes /a. ɑː/ appel ( apple. a. tale ( languages. ɑː. Represents /a/ at word end and before double consonants and /ɑː/ before single consonant-vowel aa /ɑː/ aap ( monkey. ape' aai /ɑːi/ draai ( turn' ae /ɑə/ vrae ( questions' ai/ baie ( many. much' or 'very. ai (expression of frustration or resignation) b/ boom ( tree. c /s. k/ Found only in borrowed words or proper nouns; the former pronunciation occurs before 'e. i' or 'y' featured in the plural form -ici (also written isie) as in the plural of medikus ( medic. medici ch /ʃ. x. k/ chirurg ( surgeon. ʃ/ typically sj is used instead) chemie ( chemistry. x. chitien ( chitin. k. Found only in loanwords and proper nouns /d/ dag ( day. deel ( part. divide. share' dj /d͡ʒ/ djati ( teak. djihad ( jihad. Used to transcribe foreign words e /ɛ. æ. ɪə. ə/ bed /ɛ/ in single-consonant words and before double consonants, æ/ exists as an allophone of this before /x. k. l/ or /r. ɪə/ before single consonant-vowel, ə/ in all other positions è /ɛ/ nè ( yes. right. dè ( here, take this. or ' this is] yours. Used exclusively in interjections ê /ɛː. æː/ sê ( to say. wêreld ( world. Represents /æː/ before /x. k. l/ or /r/ ë - Diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ë, ëe and ëi are pronounced like 'e. ee' and 'ei' respectively ee /ɪə/ weet ( to know. een ( one' eeu /iːu/ sneeu ( snow. eeu ( century' ei /ɛːi/ lei ( to lead' eu /ɪø/ seun ( son' or 'lad' f/ fiets ( bicycle' g /x. ɡ/ ɡ/ exists as the allophone of /x/ if at the end of a root word preceded by /r/ and inflected, e. berg ( mountain' is pronounced as /bærx/ and berge is pronounced as /bærɡə/ gh /ɡ/ gholf ( golf. Used for /ɡ/ when it is not an allophone of /x/ found only in borrowed words h /ɦ/ hael ( hail. hond ( dog' i. ə/ kind ( child. ə. ink ( ink. ə. krisis ( crisis. i/ for first 'i' and /ə/ for second 'i. elektrisiteit ( electricity. i/ for first and second 'i' third 'i' is part of diphthong 'ei' î /əː/ wîe (plural of wig; wedges' or 'quoins' ï Found in words such as beïnvloed ( to influence. The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ï and ïe are pronounced like 'i' and 'ie' respectively ie /i/ iets ( something' j/ jonk ( young' k/ kat ( cat. kan ( can' verb) or 'jug' l/ lag ( laugh' m/ man ( man' n/ nael ( nail' ng /ŋ/ sing ( to sing' o /ɔ. ʊə/ op ( on' or 'up. ɔ. bote ( boats. ʊə/ ô /ɔː/ môre. tomorrow' ö Found in words such as mikroörganisme ( micro-organism. The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ö is pronounced the same as 'o' oe /u/ boek ( book. koel ( cool' oei /ui/ koei ( cow' oo /ʊə/ oor ( ear' or 'over' ooi /oːi/ mooi ( pretty. beautiful. nooi ( saying for little girl' or 'invitation' ou /ɵu/ oupa ( grandpa. grandfather. koud ( cold. Sometimes spelled ouw in loanwords and surnames, for example Louw. /p/ pot ( pot. pers ( purple' — or 'press' indicating the news media) q Found only in foreign words with original spelling maintained; typically k is used instead /r/ rooi ( red' s. z. ʃ/ ses ( six. stem ( voice' or 'vote. posisie ( position. z/ for first 's. s/ for second 's. rasioneel ( rational. ʃ/ sj /ʃ/ sjaal ( shawl. sjokolade ( chocolate' t. ʃ/ tafel ( table. aktuaris ( actuary. ʃ/ tj /tʃ. k/ tjank ( whine like a dog' or 'to cry incessantly. The former pronunciation occurs at the beginning of a word and the latter in " tjie" where it can also represent /c/ in some accents /œ. yː/ kus ( coast' or 'kiss. skadu ( shade. The latter pronunciation is rare and most commonly found as the word u (formal 'you' û /œː/ brûe ( bridges' ü Found in words such as reünie ( reunion. The diaeresis indicates the start of a new syllable, thus ü is pronounced the same u, except when found in proper nouns and surnames from German, like Müller. ui /œj/ uit ( out' uu /yː/ uur ( hour' vis ( fish. vir ( for' w /v. w/ water ( water. v. represents /w/ after consonants; an example: kwassie ( brush. w/ x /z. ks/ xifoïed ( xiphoid. z. x-straal ( x-ray. ks. /ɛi/ byt ( bite' z /z/ Zoeloe ( Zulu. Found only in onomatopoeia and loanwords Afrikaans phrases [ edit] Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription would be fairly standard. Hallo! Hoe gaan dit? ɦalœu ɦu χɑːn dət] Hallo! Hoe gaat het (met jou/je/u) Also used: Hallo! Hoe is het? ɦɑloː ɦu ɣaːn ɦət] Hello! How goes it? Hello! How are you? Hallo! Wie geht's. Hallo! Wie geht's dir/Ihnen? Baie goed, dankie. [baiə χut daŋki] Heel goed, dank je. [ɦeːl ɣut dɑŋk jə] Very well, thank you. Sehr gut, danke. Praat jy Afrikaans? prɑːt jəi afrikɑːns] Spreek/Praat jij/je Afrikaans? spreːk/praːt jɛi̯/jə ɑfrikaːns] Do you speak Afrikaans? Sprichst du Afrikaans? Praat jy Engels? prɑːt jəi ɛŋəls] Spreek/Praat jij/je Engels? spreːk/praːt jɛi̯/jə ɛŋəls] Do you speak English? Sprichst du Englisch? Ja. [jɑː] jaː] Yes. Nee. [nɪə] neː] No. Nein. Also: Nee. (Colloquial) n Bietjie. [ə biki] Een beetje. [ə beːtjə] A bit. Ein bisschen. Sometimes shortened in text. n bisschen" Wat is jou naam? vat əs jœu nɑːm] Hoe heet jij/je. Wat is jouw naam? ʋɑt ɪs jɑu̯ naːm] What is your name? Wie heißt du. Wie ist dein Name? Die kinders praat Afrikaans. [di kənərs prɑːt afrikɑːns] De kinderen spreken/praten Afrikaans. [də kɪndərən spreːkən/praːtən ɑfrikaːns] The children speak Afrikaans. Die Kinder sprechen Afrikaans. Ek is lief vir jou. Less common: Ek het jou lief. [æk əs lif fər jœu] Ik hou van jou/je. Common in Southern Dutch: Ik heb je/jou/u lief. [ɪk ɦɑu̯ vɑn jɑu̯/jə. ɪk ɦɛb jə/jɑu̯/y lif] I love you. Ich liebe dich. Also: Ich habe dich lieb. (Colloquial; virtually no romantic connotation) In the Dutch language the word Afrikaans means African, in the general sense. Consequently, Afrikaans is commonly denoted as Zuid-Afrikaans. This ambiguity also exists in Afrikaans itself and is resolved either in the context of its usage, or by using Afrikaner for an African person, and Afrika- in the adjective sense. A handful of Afrikaans words are exactly the same as in English. The following Afrikaans sentences, for example, are exactly the same in the two languages, in terms of both their meaning and spelling; only their pronunciation differs. My pen was in my hand. məi pɛn vas ən məi ɦant] My hand is in warm water. məi ɦant əs ən varm vɑːtər] Sample text [ edit] Psalm 23 1983 translation. citation needed] Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie. Hy laat my in groen weivelde rus. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is. Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam. Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my. In U hande is ek veilig. Psalm 23 alternative translation. citation needed] Die Here is my Herder, niks sal my ontbreek nie. Hy laat my neerlê in groen weivelde; na waters waar rus is, lei Hy my heen. Hy verkwik my siel; Hy lei my in die spore van geregtigheid, om sy Naam ontwil. Al gaan ek ook in 'n dal van doodskaduwee, ek sal geen onheil vrees nie; want U is met my: u stok en u staf die vertroos my. Lord's Prayer (Afrikaans New Living translation. citation needed] Ons Vader in die hemel, laat U Naam geheilig word. Laat U koningsheerskappy spoedig kom. Laat U wil hier op aarde uitgevoer word soos in die hemel. Gee ons die porsie brood wat ons vir vandag nodig het. En vergeef ons ons sondeskuld soos ons ook óns skuldenaars vergewe het. Bewaar ons sodat ons nie aan verleiding sal toegee nie; en bevry ons van die greep van die Bose. Want van U is die koninkryk, en die krag, en die heerlikheid, tot in ewigheid. Amen Lord's Prayer (Original translation. citation needed] Onse Vader wat in die hemel is, laat U Naam geheilig word; laat U koninkryk kom; laat U wil geskied op die aarde, net soos in die hemel. Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood; en vergeef ons ons skulde soos ons ons skuldenaars vergewe en laat ons nie in die versoeking nie maar verlos ons van die Bose Want aan U behoort die koninkryk en die krag en die heerlikheid See also [ edit] Aardklop Arts Festival Afrikaans literature Afrikaans speaking population in South Africa Arabic Afrikaans Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (Afrikaans Dictionary) Differences between Afrikaans and Dutch IPA/Afrikaans Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees (Arts Festival) Languages of South Africa Languages of Zimbabwe#Afrikaans List of Afrikaans language poets List of Afrikaans singers List of English words of Afrikaans origin South African Translators' Institute Tsotsitaal Notes [ edit] Afrikaans borrowed from other languages such as Portuguese, German, Malay, Bantu and Khoisan languages; see Sebba 1997, p. 160, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459. 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin; see Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Mesthrie 2002, p. 205, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 203, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131, Brachin & Vincent 1985, p. 132. ^ What follows are estimations. Afrikaans has 16. 3 million speakers; see de Swaan 2001, p. 216. Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan 2009, p. 174. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see Alant 2004, p. 45, Proost 2006, p. 402. Afrikaans has over 5 million native speakers and 15 million second-language speakers; see Réguer 2004, p. 20. Afrikaans has about 6 million native and 16 million second language speakers; see Domínguez & López 1995, p. 340. In South Africa, over 23 million people speak Afrikaans, of which a third are first-language speakers; see Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell 2008–2011, p. 1. ^ It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the official languages of South Africa; see Webb 2003, pp. 7, 8, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131. It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant 2004, p. 45. It is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 207, Myers-Scotton 2006, p. 389, Simpson 2008, p. 324, Palmer 2001, p. 141, Webb 2002, p. 74, Herriman & Burnaby 1996, p. 18, Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7, Brook Napier 2007, pp. 69, 71. An estimated 40% have at least a basic level of communication; see Webb 2003, p. 7 McLean & McCormick 1996, p. 333. ^ kan would be best used in this case because kan nie means cannot and since he is sick he is unable to come, whereas sal is "will" in English and is thus not the best word choice. References [ edit] Citations [ edit] a b c Afrikaans at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016) Webb (2002) 14:78. ^ Aarons & Reynolds, South African Sign Language" in Monaghan (ed. Many Ways to be Deaf: International Variation in Deaf Communities (2003. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017. Afrikaans. Glottolog 3. 0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. ^ Wells, John C. (2008) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed. Longman, ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0 ^ Roach, Peter (2011) Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed. Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0-521-15253-2 ^ Pithouse, K. Mitchell, C; Moletsane, R. Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action. p. 91. ^ Heese, J. (1971. Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, 1657–1867 [ The origin of the Afrikaner] in Afrikaans. Cape Town: A. Balkema. OCLC   1821706. OL   5361614M. ^ Kloeke, G. G. (1950. Herkomst en groei van het Afrikaans [ Origin and growth of Afrikaans] PDF) in Dutch. Leiden: Universitaire Pers Leiden. ^ Heeringa, Wilbert; de Wet, Febe; van Huyssteen, Gerhard B. (2015. The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. 47 (0. doi: 10. 5842/47-0-649. ISSN   2224-3380. ^ Coetzee, Abel (1948. Standaard-Afrikaans [ Standard Afrikaans] PDF. Johannesburg: Pers van die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand. Retrieved 17 September 2014. ^ For morphology; see Holm 1989, p. 338, Geerts & Clyne 1992, p. 72. For grammar and spelling; see Sebba 1997, p. 161. ^ Dutch and Afrikaans share mutual intelligibility; see Gooskens 2007, p. 453, Holm 1989, p. 338, Baker & Prys Jones 1997, p. 302, Egil Breivik & Håkon Jahr 1987, p. 232. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba 2007, Sebba 1997, p. 161. ^ a b Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 30. ISBN   9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. ^ Community profiles > Census 2011. Statistics South Africa Superweb. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. ^ Afrikaans. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 24 January 2020. ^ Afrikaans was historically called Cape Dutch; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Conradie 2005, p. 208, Sebba 1997, p. 160, Langer & Davies 2005, p. 144, Deumert 2002, p. 3, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 130. Afrikaans is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see Holm 1989, p. 338, Geerts & Clyne 1992, p. 71, Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459. Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba 2007, p. 116. ^ a b c d "Afrikaans. Omniglot. Retrieved 22 September 2010. ^ Afrikaans language. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010. ^ Alatis, Hamilton, Ai-Hui Tan (2002. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2000: Linguistics, Language and the Professions: Education, Journalism, Law, Medicine, and Technology. Washington, DC: University Press. ISBN   978-0-87840-373-8, p. 132. ^ Keith Brown and Sarah Ogilvie, eds. (2008. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. ISBN   978-0-08-087774-7, p. 8. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. "Hottentot Dutch. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. ^ Hans den Besten, 1989. From Khoekhoe foreignertalk via Hottentot Dutch to Afrikaans: the creation of a novel grammar. In Pütz & Dirven (eds. Wheels within wheels: papers of the Duisburg symposium on pidgin and creole languages, pp. 207–250. Frankfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang. ^ Kaplan, Irving (1971. Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa (PDF. pp. 46–771. ^ James Louis Garvin, ed. (1933. Cape Colony. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Worden, Nigel (2010. Slavery in Dutch South Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 40–43. ISBN   978-0521152662. ^ Thomason & Kaufman (1988) pp. 252–254. ^ Thomason & Kaufman (1988) p. 256. ^ Afrikaans Language Courses in London. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2010. ^ a b Kaplan, R. B. Baldauf, R. "Language Planning & Policy: Language Planning and Policy in Africa: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique and South Africa. Retrieved 17 March 2017. registration required) "Afrikaans becomes the official language of the Union of South Africa. South African History Online. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2017. ^ Speech by the Minister of Art and Culture, N Botha, at the 30th anniversary festival of the Afrikaans Language Monument" in Afrikaans. South African Department of Arts and Culture. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2009. ^ Galasko, C. (November 2008. The Afrikaans Language Monument. Spine. 33 (23. 1097. ^ Afrikaner. South African History Online (SAHO. Retrieved 20 October 2017. ^ Bogaards, Attie H. "Bybelstudies" in Afrikaans. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008. ^ Afrikaanse Bybel vier 75 jaar" in Afrikaans. Bybelgenootskap van Suid-Afrika. 25 August 2008. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008. ^ New World Translation Released in Three Languages During South Africa International Convention. 13 September 2019. ^ a b c d e f "Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence. UNdata. Retrieved 13 October 2015. ^ Census Profile, 2016 Census of Canada. Retrieved 8 August 2019. ^ 2011 Census: Detailed analysis - English language proficiency in England and Wales, Main language and general health characteristics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 January 2018. ^ 2016 American Community Survey, 5-year estimates ( "Afrikaans is making a comeback in Argentina - along with koeksisters and milktart. Business Insider South Africa. Retrieved 11 October 2019. ^ Wessel Visser (3 February 2005. Die dilemma van 'n gedeelde Afrikaanse identiteit: Kan wit en bruin mekaar vind. The dilemma of a shared African identity: Can white and brown find each other. in Afrikaans. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ^ Frydman, Jenna (2011. A Critical Analysis of Namibia's English-only language policy. In Bokamba, Eyamba G. (ed. Selected proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference on African Linguistics — African languages and linguistics today (PDF. Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. pp. 178–189. ISBN   978-1-57473-446-1. ^ Willemyns, Roland (2013. Dutch: Biography of a Language. Oxford University Press. p. 232. ISBN   978-0-19-985871-2. ^ Armoria patriæ – Republic of Bophuthatswana. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. ^ Kamau, John. "Eldoret, the town that South African Boers started. Business Daily. ^ Govt info available online in all official languages – South Africa – The Good News Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas, by Sinfree Makoni, p. 120S. ^ Lynsey Chutel (25 February 2016. South Africa: Protesting students torch university buildings. Stamford Advocate. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. ^ Studentenunruhen: Konflikte zwischen Schwarz und Weiß" Student unrest: conflicts between black and white. Die Presse. 25 February 2016. ^ Südafrika: Unerklärliche" Gewaltserie an Universitäten" South Africa: Unexplained" violence at universities. Euronews. 25 February 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016... visited on 21 March 2012" PDF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. ^ Rupert snubs mag over Afrikaans slur, Business Africa, 5 December 2005. ^ Afrikaans stars join row over 'ugly language' Cape Argus, 10 December 2005. ^ Mesthrie, Rajend (1995. Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics. New Africa Books. p. 214. Retrieved 23 August 2008. ^ Brachin, Pierre; Vincent, Paul (1985. The Dutch Language: A Survey. Brill Archive. p. 132. Retrieved 3 November 2008. ^ Mesthrie, Rajend (2002. Language in South Africa. p. 205. Retrieved 18 May 2010. ^ Sebba 1997, p. 161 ^ a b Holm, John A. (1989. Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. p. 338. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ a b Sebba, Mark (1997. Contact languages: pidgins and creoles. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ Baker, Colin; Prys Jones, Sylvia (1997. Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Multilingual Matters Ltd. p. 302. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ Egil Breivik, Leiv; Håkon Jahr, Ernst (1987. Language change: contributions to the study of its causes. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ Sebba, Mark (2007. Spelling and society: the culture and politics of orthography around the world. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ a b c d Gooskens, Charlotte (November 2007. The Contribution of Linguistic Factors to the Intelligibility of Closely Related Languages" PDF. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. University of Groningen. 28 (6) 445–467. 2167/jmmd511. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ Language Standardization and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. Ana Deumert. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2004. p. 22. Retrieved 10 November 2008. ^ Niesler, Thomas; Louw, Philippa; Roux, Justus (2005. Phonetic analysis of Afrikaans, English, Xhosa and Zulu using South African speech databases (PDF. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. 23. pp. 459–474. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2012. ^ Afrikaans: Standard Afrikaans. Lycos Retriever. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. ^ ten Thije, Jan D. Zeevaert, Ludger (2007. Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. p. 17. Retrieved 19 May 2010. ^ S. Linfield, interview in Salmagundi; 2000. ^ a b c "Languages — Afrikaans. World Data Atlas. Retrieved 17 September 2014. ^ 2. 8 Home language by province (percentages. Statistics South Africa. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2013. ^ Table 2. 6: Home language within provinces (percentages. PDF. Census 2001 - Census in brief. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2013. ^ Oranje FM, Radio Sonder Grense, Jacaranda FM, Radio Pretoria, Rapport, Beeld, Die Burger, Die Son, Afrikaans news is run everyday; the PRAAG website is a web-based news service. On pay channels it is provided as second language on all sports, Kyknet ^ Hannes van Zyl. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2009. ^ a b Pienaar, Antoinette; Otto, Hanti (30 October 2012. Afrikaans groei, sê sensus (Afrikaans growing according to census. Beeld. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013. ^ Prince, Llewellyn (23 March 2013. Afrikaans se môre is bruin (Afrikaans' tomorrow is coloured. Rapport. Archived from the original on 31 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013. ^ Platteland Film... ^ SABC3 "tests" Afrikaans programming Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Screen Africa, 15 April 2009 ^ Namibia 2011 Population & Housing Census Main Report" PDF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. ^ Afrikaans vs Zulu row brewing at schools, IOL News... . permanent dead link] Donaldson (1993) pp. 2–7. ^ Wissing (2016. ^ Donaldson (1993:4–6) Donaldson (1993) pp. 5–6. ^ Donaldson (1993:4, 6–7) Swanepoel (1927:38) Donaldson (1993:7) Donaldson (1993:3, 7) Donaldson (1993:2, 8–10) Lass (1987:117–119) Donaldson (1993:10) Donaldson (1993) pp. 13–15. ^ Donaldson (1993) pp. 13–14, 20–22. ^ Den Besten (2012) a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Only this source mentions the trilled realization. ^ Bowerman (2004:939) Lass (1987) p. 117. ^ Donaldson (1993) p. 15. ^ They were named before the establishment of the current Western Cape, Eastern Cape, and Northern Cape provinces, and are not dialects of those provinces per se. ^ a b "Afrikaans 101. Retrieved 24 April 2010. ^ Lekker Stories. Kaapse Son - Die eerste Afrikaanse Poniekoerant (in Afrikaans. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2017... Vertel my van SA, Afrikaans. Tell me of SA, Afrikaans. Beeld (in Afrikaans. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013. ^ a b "Afrikaans history and development. The Unique Language of South Africa. Retrieved 2 April 2015. ^ Sambreel. Zonnescherm. Retrieved 2 April 2015. ^ a b Austin, Peter, ed. One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost. University of California Press. p. 97. ^ ASSAGAAI. Retrieved 7 October 2019. ^ Karos II: Kros. Retrieved 2 April 2015. ^ Potgieter, D. J., ed. (1970. Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. Volume 1. NASOU. p. 111. ^ Döhne, J. (1857. A Zulu-Kafir Dictionary, Etymologically Explained. Preceded by an Introduction on the Zulu-Kafir Language. Cape Town: Printed at G. J. Pike's Machine Printing Office. p. 87. ^ Samuel Doggie Ngcongwane (1985. The Languages We Speak. University of Zululand. p. 51. ^ David Johnson; Sally Johnson (2002. Gardening with Indigenous Trees. Struik. p. 92. ISBN   9781868727759. ^ Strohbach, Ben J. Walters, H. (Wally) November 2015. An overview of grass species used for thatching in the Zambezi, Kavango East and Kavango West Regions, Namibia. Dinteria. Windhoek, Namibia (35) 13–42. ^ South African Journal of Ethnology. 22–24. Bureau for Scientific Publications of the Foundation for Education, Science and Technology. 1999. p. 157. ^ Toward Freedom. 45–46. 1996. p. 47. ^ Retrieved 12 April 2010. 26 August 2007. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010. Sources [ edit] Adegbija, Efurosibina E. (1994) Language Attitudes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview, Multilingual Matters, retrieved 10 November 2008 Alant, Jaco (2004) Parlons Afrikaans (in French) Éditions L'Harmattan, retrieved 3 June 2010 Baker, Colin; Prys Jones, Sylvia (1997) Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education, Multilingual Matters Ltd., retrieved 19 May 2010 Berdichevsky, Norman (2004) Nations, language, and citizenship, Norman Berdichevsky, retrieved 31 May 2010 Batibo, Herman (2005. Language decline and death in Africa: causes, consequences, and challenges" Oxford Linguistics, Multilingual Matters Ltd, retrieved 24 May 2010 Booij, Geert (1999. The Phonology of Dutch. Oxford Linguistics, Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-823869-X, retrieved 24 May 2010 Booij, Geert (2003. Constructional idioms and periphrasis: the progressive construction in Dutch. PDF) Paradigms and Periphrasis, University of Kentucky, archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2011, retrieved 19 May 2010 Bowerman, Sean (2004. White South African English: phonology" in Schneider, Edgar W. Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds. A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN   3-11-017532-0 Brachin, Pierre; Vincent, Paul (1985) The Dutch Language: A Survey, Brill Archive, retrieved 3 November 2008 Bromber, Katrin; Smieja, Birgit (2004. Globalisation and African languages: risks and benefits" Trends in Linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 28 May 2010 Brook Napier, Diane (2007. Languages, language learning, and nationalism in South Africa" in Schuster, Katherine; Witkosky, David (eds. Language of the land: policy, politics, identity, Studies in the history of education, Information Age Publishing, retrieved 19 May 2010 Conradie, C. Jac (2005. The final stages of deflection – The case of Afrikaans "het. Historical Linguistics 2005, John Benjamins Publishing Company, retrieved 29 May 2010 Den Besten, Hans (2012. Speculations of [χ] elision and intersonorantic [ʋ] in Afrikaans" in van der Wouden, Ton (ed. Roots of Afrikaans: Selected Writings of Hans Den Besten, John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 79–93, ISBN   978-90-272-5267-8 Deumert, Ana (2002. Standardization and social networks – The emergence and diffusion of standard Afrikaans" Standardization – Studies from the Germanic languages, John Benjamins Publishing Company, retrieved 29 May 2010 Deumert, Ana; Vandenbussche, Wim (2003. Germanic standardizations: past to present" Trends in Linguistics, John Benjamins Publishing Company, retrieved 28 May 2010 Deumert, Ana (2004) Language Standardization and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch, John Benjamins Publishing Company, retrieved 10 November 2008 de Swaan, Abram (2001) Words of the world: the global language system, A. de Swaan, retrieved 3 June 2010 Domínguez, Francesc; López, Núria (1995) Sociolinguistic and language planning organizations, John Benjamins Publishing Company, retrieved 28 May 2010 Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993) A grammar of Afrikaans, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 28 May 2010 Egil Breivik, Leiv; Håkon Jahr, Ernst (1987) Language change: contributions to the study of its causes, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 19 May 2010 Geerts, G. Clyne, Michael G. (1992) Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 19 May 2010 Gooskens, Charlotte (2007. The Contribution of Linguistic Factors to the Intelligibility of Closely Related Languages" PDF) Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Volume 28, Issue 6 November 2007, University of Groningen, pp. 445–467, retrieved 19 May 2010 Heeringa, Wilbert; de Wet, Febe (2007) The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects (PDF) University of Groningen, pp. 445–467, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011, retrieved 19 May 2010 Herriman, Michael L. Burnaby, Barbara (1996) Language policies in English-dominant countries: six case studies, Multilingual Matters Ltd., retrieved 19 May 2010 Hiskens, Frans; Auer, Peter; Kerswill, Paul (2005) The study of dialect convergence and divergence: conceptual and methodological considerations. (PDF) Lancaster University, retrieved 19 May 2010 Holm, John A. (1989) Pidgins and Creoles: References survey, Cambridge University Press, retrieved 19 May 2010 Jansen, Carel; Schreuder, Robert; Neijt, Anneke (2007. The influence of spelling conventions on perceived plurality in compounds. A comparison of Afrikaans and Dutch. PDF) Written Language & Literacy 10:2, Radboud University Nijmegen, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011, retrieved 19 May 2010 Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M. (2004. The language planning situation in South Africa" in Baldauf, Richard B. Kaplan, Robert B. (eds. Language planning and policy in Africa, Multilingual Matters Ltd., retrieved 31 May 2010 Langer, Nils; Davies, Winifred V. (2005) Linguistic purism in the Germanic languages, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 28 May 2010 Lass, Roger (1984. Vowel System Universals and Typology: Prologue to Theory" Phonology Yearbook, Cambridge University Press, 1: 75–111, doi: 10. 1017/S0952675700000300, JSTOR   4615383 Lass, Roger (1987. Intradiphthongal Dependencies" in Anderson, John; Durand, Jacques (eds. Explorations in Dependency Phonology, Dordrecht: Foris Publications Holland, pp. 109–131, ISBN   90-6765-297-0 Machan, Tim William (2009) Language anxiety: conflict and change in the history of English, Oxford University Press, retrieved 3 June 2010 McLean, Daryl; McCormick, Kay (1996. English in South Africa 1940–1996" in Fishman, Joshua A. Conrad, Andrew W. Rubal-Lopez, Alma (eds. Post-imperial English: status change in former British and American colonies, 1940–1990, Walter de Gruyter, retrieved 31 May 2010 Mennen, Ineke; Levelt, Clara; Gerrits, Ellen (2006. Acquisition of Dutch phonology: an overview" PDF) Speech Science Research Centre Working Paper WP10, Queen Margaret University College, retrieved 19 May 2010 Mesthrie, Rajend (1995) Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics, New Africa Books, retrieved 23 August 2008 Mesthrie, Rajend (2002) Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, retrieved 18 May 2010 Myers-Scotton, Carol (2006) Multiple voices: an introduction to bilingualism, Blackwell Publishing, retrieved 31 May 2010 Niesler, Thomas; Louw, Philippa; Roux, Justus (2005. Phonetic analysis of Afrikaans, English, Xhosa and Zulu using South African speech databases" PDF) Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 23 (4) 459–474, doi: 10. 2989/16073610509486401, archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2012 Palmer, Vernon Valentine (2001) Mixed jurisdictions worldwide: the third legal family, Vernon V. Palmer, retrieved 3 June 2010 Page, Melvin Eugene; Sonnenburg, Penny M. (2003) Colonialism: an international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia, Melvin E. Page, retrieved 19 May 2010 Proost, Kristel (2006. Spuren der Kreolisierung im Lexikon des Afrikaans" in Proost, Kristel; Winkler, Edeltraud (eds. Von Intentionalität zur Bedeutung konventionalisierter Zeichen, Studien zur Deutschen Sprache (in German) Gunter Narr Verlag, retrieved 3 June 2010 Réguer, Laurent Philippe (2004) Si loin, si proche. Une langue européenne à découvrir: le néerlandais (in French) Sorbonne Nouvelle, retrieved 3 June 2010 Sebba, Mark (1997) Contact languages: pidgins and creoles, Palgrave Macmillan, retrieved 19 May 2010 Sebba, Mark (2007) Spelling and society: the culture and politics of orthography around the world, Cambridge University Press, retrieved 19 May 2010 Simpson, Andrew (2008) Language and national identity in Africa, Oxford University Press, retrieved 31 May 2010 Stell, Gerard (2008–2011) Mapping linguistic communication across colour divides: Black Afrikaans in Central South Africa, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, retrieved 2 June 2010 Swanepoel, J. (1927) The sounds of Afrikaans. Their Dialectic Variations and the Difficulties They Present to an Englishman (PDF) Longmans, Green & Co Thomason, Sarah Grey; Kaufman, Terrence (1988) Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics, University of California Press (published 1991) ISBN   0-520-07893-4 Webb, Victor N. (2002. Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development" Impact Studies in Language and Society, John Benjamins Publishing Company, doi: 10. 1075/impact. 14, ISBN   9789027297631 Webb, Victor N. (2003. Language policy development in South Africa" PDF) Centre for Research in the Politics of Language, University of Pretoria, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2003 Namibian Population Census (2001) Languages Spoken in Namibia, Government of Namibia, archived from the original on 16 May 2010, retrieved 28 May 2010 Wissing, Daan (2016. Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory" Taalportaal, archived from the original on 15 April 2017, retrieved 16 April 2017 CIA (2010) The World Factbook (CIA) — Namibia, Central Intelligence Agency, archived from the original on 28 May 2010, retrieved 28 May 2010 Further reading [ edit] Grieshaber, Nicky. 2011. Diacs and Quirks in a Nutshell – Afrikaans spelling explained. Pietermaritzburg. ISBN   978-0-620-51726-3; e- ISBN   978-0-620-51980-9. Roberge, P. T. (2002. Afrikaans – considering origins" Language in South Africa, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   0-521-53383-X Thomas, C. (1899. Boer language" Origin of the Anglo-Boer War revealed, London, England: Hodder and Stoughton External links [ edit] Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Afrikaans Wikiquote has quotations related to: Afrikaans Afrikaans English Online Dictionary at Hablaa Afrikaans-English Online Dictionary at Learn Afrikaans Online (Open Learning Environment) Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge (FAK) – Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Associations Dutch Writers from South Africa: A Cultural-Historical Study, Part I from the World Digital Library Afrikaans Literature and Language Web dossier African Studies Centre, Leiden (2011.

I 2c afrikaner love. I african american males. I 2c afrikaner video. I 2c afrikaner my account. I 2c afrikaner love you. Iafrica news. Afrikaners The flag of the Afrikaners Total population c. 2. 8–3. 5 million [1] Regions with significant populations   South Africa 2, 710, 461 (2011) 2]   Namibia 92, 400 (2003) 3]   Zambia ≈41, 000 (2006) a]   United Kingdom ≈40, 000 (2006) a]   Botswana ≈20, 000 (2010) 4]   Eswatini ≈13, 000 (2006) a]   Australia 5, 079 (2011) b]   New Zealand 1, 197 (2013) c]   Argentina 650 (2019) 7] Languages First language Afrikaans Second or third language English various Bantu languages Religion Reformed tradition (see Afrikaner Calvinism; specifically: Dutch Reformed  • Dutch Reformed of Africa  • Reformed  • Afrikaans Protestant)  • Other Protestants  • Roman Catholicism Related ethnic groups British diaspora in Africa White Namibians Dutch Frisians Flemish people German Namibians Cape Coloureds Basters Griquas Oorlams Afrikaners ( Afrikaans: afrəˈkɑːnərs, afri. are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving at the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th and 18th centuries. [8] They traditionally dominated South Africa 's politics and commercial agricultural sector prior to 1994. [9] Afrikaans, South Africa's third [10] most widely spoken home language, evolved as the mother tongue of Afrikaners and most Cape Coloureds. [9] It originated from the Dutch vernacular [11] 12] of South Holland, incorporating words brought from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and Madagascar by slaves. [13] Afrikaners make up approximately 5. 2% of the total South African population based on the number of white South Africans who speak Afrikaans as a first language in the South African National Census of 2011. [2] The arrival of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 opened a gateway of free access to Asia from Western Europe around the Cape of Good Hope; however, it also necessitated the founding and safeguarding of trade stations in the East. [8] The Portuguese landed in Mossel Bay in 1500, explored Table Bay two years later, and by 1510 had started raiding inland. [14] Shortly afterwards the Dutch Republic sent merchant vessels to India, and in 1602 founded the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie ( Dutch East India Company; VOC. 15] As the volume of traffic rounding the Cape increased, the Company recognised its natural harbour as an ideal watering point for the long voyage around Africa to the Orient and established a victualling station there in 1652. [8] VOC officials did not favour the permanent settlement of Europeans in their trading empire, although during the 140 years of Dutch rule many VOC servants retired or were discharged and remained as private citizens. [15] Furthermore, the exigencies of supplying local garrisons and passing fleets compelled the administration to confer free status upon employees and oblige them to become independent farmers. [16] Encouraged by the success of this experiment, the Company extended free passage from 1685 to 1707 for Hollanders wishing to settle at the Cape. [16] In 1688 it sponsored the immigration of 200 French Huguenot refugees forced into exile by the Edict of Fontainebleau. [17] The terms under which the Huguenots agreed to immigrate were the same offered to other VOC subjects, including free passage and requisite farm equipment on credit. Prior attempts at cultivating vineyards or exploiting olive groves for fruit had been unsuccessful, and it was hoped that Huguenot colonists accustomed to Mediterranean agriculture could succeed where the Dutch had failed. [18] They were augmented by VOC soldiers returning from Asia, predominantly Germans channeled into Amsterdam by the Company's extensive recruitment network and thence overseas. [19] 20] Despite their diverse nationalities, the colonists used a common language and adopted similar attitudes towards politics. [21] The attributes they shared came to serve as a basis for the evolution of Afrikaner identity and consciousness. [22] Afrikaner nationalism has taken the form of political parties and secret societies such as the Broederbond in the twentieth century. In 1914 the National Party was formed to promote Afrikaner economic interests and sever South Africa's ties to the United Kingdom. Rising to prominence by winning the 1948 general elections, it has also been noted for enforcing a harsh policy of racial segregation ( apartheid) while simultaneously declaring South Africa a republic and withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. [9] The National Party left power in 1994 following bilateral negotiations to end apartheid and South Africa's first multiracial elections held under a universal franchise. [23] Nomenclature [ edit] The term "Afrikaner" formerly sometimes in the forms Afrikaander or Afrikaaner, from the Dutch Africaaner [24] presently denotes the politically, culturally and socially dominant group [25. need quotation to verify] among white South Africans, or the Afrikaans -speaking population of Dutch origin. Their original progenitors, especially in paternal lines, also included smaller numbers of Flemish, French Huguenot, and German immigrants. [8] Historically, the terms " burgher " and "Boer" have both been used to describe white Afrikaans-speakers as a group; neither is particularly objectionable, but "Afrikaner" has been considered [ by whom. a more appropriate term. [9] By the late nineteenth century, the term was in common usage in both the Boer republics and in the Cape Colony. [26] At one time, burghers denoted Cape Dutch: those settlers who were influential in the administration, able to participate in urban affairs, and did so regularly. Boers often referred to the settled ethnic European farmers or to nomadic cattle-herders. During the Batavian Republic of 1795-1806, burgher" or citizen) was popularised [ by whom. among Dutch communities both at home and abroad as a popular revolutionary form of address. [9] In South Africa it remained in use as late as the Second Boer War of 1899-1902. [27] The first recorded instance of a colonist identifying as an "Afrikaner" occurred in March 1707, during a disturbance in Stellenbosch. [28] When the magistrate, Johannes Starrenburg, ordered an unruly crowd to desist, a young white man named Hendrik Biebouw retorted. Ik ben een Afrikaander – al slaat de landdrost mij dood, of al zetten hij mij in de tronk, ik zal, nog wil niet zwijgen. I am an African – even if the magistrate were to beat me to death, or put me in jail, I shall not be, nor will I stay, silent. 29] Biebouw was flogged for his insolence and later banished to Batavia [30] 22 {present-day Jakarta in Indonesia. The word "Afrikaner" is thought to have first been used to classify Cape Coloureds, or other groups of colour claiming mixed-race ancestry. Biebouw had numerous "half-caste" mixed race) siblings and may have identified with Coloureds socially. [28] The growing use of the term appeared to express the rise of a new identity for white South Africans, suggesting for the first time a group identification with the Cape Colony rather than with any ancestral homeland in Europe. [31] Population [ edit] 1691 estimates [ edit] Increase of European families in the Cape by year [32] 33] Year Number 1657 – 1675 46 1675 - 1700 154 1700 – 1725 263 1725 – 1750 272 1750 – 1775 400 1775 – 1795 391 The Dutch East India Company (VOC) initially had no intention of planting a permanent European settlement at the Cape of Good Hope; until 1657 it devoted as little attention as possible to the development or administration of the Dutch Cape Colony. [34] From the VOC's perspective, there was little financial incentive to regard the region as anything more than the site of a strategic victualing centre. [34] Furthermore, the Cape was unpopular among VOC employees, who regarded it as a barren and insignificant outpost with little opportunity for advancement. [34] A small number of longtime VOC employees who had been instrumental in the colony's founding and its first five years of existence, however, expressed interest in applying for grants of land, with the objective of retiring at the Cape as farmers. [34] In time they came to form a class of "vrijlieden" also known as "vrijburgers" free citizens) former VOC employees who stayed in Dutch territories overseas after serving their contracts. [35] The "vrijburgers" were to be of Dutch birth (although exceptions were made for some Germans) married, of good character' and had to undertake to spend at least twenty years in Southern Africa. [34] In March 1657, when the first "vrijburgers" started receiving their farms, the white population of the Cape was only about 134. [34] Although the soil and climate in Cape Town were suitable for farming, willing immigrants remained in short supply and included a number of orphans, refugees, and foreigners accordingly. [9] From 1688 onward the Cape attracted some French Huguenots, most of them refugees from the protracted conflict between Protestants and Catholics in France. [8] South Africa's white population in 1691 has been described as the Afrikaner "parent stock" as no significant effort was made to secure more colonist families after the dawn of the 18th century, 8] and a majority of Afrikaners are descended from progenitors who arrived prior to 1700 in general and the late 1600s in particular. [36] 37] Although some two-thirds of this figure were Dutch-speaking Hollanders, there were at least 150 Huguenots and a nearly equal number of Low German speakers. [8] Also represented in smaller numbers were Swedes, Danes, and Belgians. [32] White population in the Dutch Cape Colony, 1691 [8] Ancestry Percentage Dutch 66. 67% French 16. 67% German 14. 29% Scandinavian, Belgian 2. 37% Note – Figures do not include expatriate soldiers, sailors, or servants of the Company. 1754 estimates [ edit] In 1754, Cape governor Ryk Tulbagh conducted a census of his non-indigenous subjects. White vrijburgers, now outnumbered by slaves imported from West Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar and the Dutch East Indies, only totaled about 6, 000. [38] 1806 estimates [ edit] Following the defeat and collapse of the Dutch Republic during Joseph Souham 's Flanders Campaign, William V, Prince of Orange escaped to the United Kingdom and appealed to the British to occupy his colonial possessions until he was restored. Holland's administration was never effectively reestablished; upon a new outbreak of hostilities with France expeditionary forces led by Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet finally imposed British rule for good when they defeated Cape governor Jan Willem Janssens in 1806. [9] At the onset of Cape Town 's annexation to the British Empire, the original Afrikaners numbered 26, 720 – or 36% of the colony's population. [8] White population in the British Cape Colony, 1806 [39] 50. 0% 27. 0% 17. 0% Scandinavian, Belgian, other 5. 5% Note – Figures do not include expatriate soldiers or officials from other British possessions. 1960 Census [ edit] The South African census of 1960 was the final census undertaken in the Union of South Africa. Ethno-linguistic status of some 15, 994, 181 South African citizens was projected by various sources through sampling language, religion and race. At least 1. 6 million South Africans represented white Afrikaans speakers, or 10% of the total population. They also constituted 9. 3% of the population in neighbouring South West Africa. [9] 1985 Census [ edit] According to the South African census of 1985, there were 2, 581, 080 white Afrikaans speakers then residing in the country, or about 9. 4% of the total population. [40] 1996 Census [ edit] The South African National Census of 1996 was the first census conducted in post- apartheid South Africa. It was calculated on census day and reported a population of 2, 558, 956 white Afrikaans speakers. The census noted that Afrikaners represented the eighth largest ethnic group in the country, or 6. 3% of the total population. Even after the end of Apartheid the ethnic group only fell by 25, 000 people. 2001 Census [ edit] The South African National Census of 2001 was the second census conducted in post- apartheid South Africa. It was calculated on 9 October and reported a population of 2, 576, 184 white Afrikaans speakers. The census noted that Afrikaners represented the eighth largest ethnic group in the country, or 5. 7% of the total population. [41] Distribution [ edit] Distribution of Afrikaans versus English as home language of white South Africans.    87. 5–100% Afrikaans    75–87. 5% Afrikaans    62. 5–75% Afrikaans    50–62. 5% Afrikaans    50–62. 5% English    62. 5–75% English    75–87. 5% English    87. 5–100% English Afrikaners make up approximately 58% of South Africa's white population, based on language used in the home. English speakers – an ethnically diverse group – account for closer to 37. 9] As in Canada or the United States, most modern European immigrants elect to learn English and are likelier to identify with those descended from British colonials of the nineteenth century. [42] Aside from coastal pockets in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal they remain heavily outnumbered by those of Afrikaans origin. [43] Percentage of Afrikaners among white South Africans by province [43] Province Afrikaners% Afrikaners All whites Eastern Cape 149, 395 48. 8% 305, 839 Free State 214, 020 89. 6% 238, 789 Gauteng 984, 472 56. 7% 1, 735, 094 KwaZulu-Natal 115, 721 24. 0% 482, 114 Limpopo 115, 921 87. 5% 132, 421 Mpumalanga 164, 620 83. 5% 197, 078 North West 237, 598 89. 0% 266, 884 Northern Cape 93, 637 91. 3% 102, 518 Western Cape 461, 522 55. 4% 832, 899 Total 2, 536, 906 59. 1% 4, 293, 636 2011 Census [ edit] The South African National Census of 2011 have counted 2, 710, 461 white South Africans who speak Afrikaans as a first language, 2] or approximately 5. 23% of the total South African population. The census also shown, an increase of 5. 21% in Afrikaner population comparing to the previous 2001 census. History [ edit] Early Dutch settlement [ edit] The earliest Afrikaner communities in South Africa were formed at the Cape of Good Hope, mainly through the introduction of Dutch colonists, French Huguenot refugees and erstwhile servants of the Dutch East India Company. [8] During the early colonial period, Afrikaners were generally known as "Christians. colonists. emigrants" or ingezeetenen ( inhabitants. 44] Their concept of being rooted in Africa—as opposed to the Company's expatriate officialdom—did not find widespread expression until the late eighteenth century. [44] It is to the ambitions of Prince Henry the Navigator that historians attribute the discovery of the Cape as a settling ground for Europeans. [8] In 1424 Henry and Fernando de Castro besieged the Canary Islands, under the impression that they might be of use to further Portuguese expeditions around Africa's coast. [14] Although this attempt was unsuccessful, Portugal's continued interest in the continent made possible the later voyages of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487 and Vasco de Gama ten years later. Diaz made known to the world a "Cape of Storms" rechristened "Good Hope" by John II. [8] As it was desirable to take formal possession of this territory the Portuguese erected a stone cross in Algoa Bay. Da Gama and his successors, however, did not take kindly to the notion, especially following a skirmish with the Khoikhoi in 1497, when one of his admirals was wounded. [14] After the British East India Company was founded in 1599, London merchants began to take advantage of the route to India by the Cape. James Lancaster, who had visited Robben Island some years earlier, anchored in Table Bay in 1601. [14] By 1614 the British had planted a penal colony on the site, and in 1621 two Englishmen claimed Table Bay on behalf of King James I, but this action was not ratified. [14] They eventually settled on Saint Helena as an alternative port of refuge. [8] Due to the value of the spice trade between Europe and their outposts in the East Indies, Dutch ships began to call sporadically at the Cape in search of provisions after 1598. [9] In 1601 a Captain Paul van Corniden came ashore at St. Sebastion's Bay near Overberg. [14] He discovered a small inlet which he named Vleesch Bay, after the cattle trade, and another Visch Bay after the abundance of fish. [14] Not long afterwards, Admiral Joris van Spilbergen reported catching penguins and sheep on Robben Island. [14] In 1648, Dutch sailors Leendert Jansz and Nicholas Proot had been shipwrecked in Table Bay and marooned for five months until picked up by a returning ship. [8] During this period they established friendly relations with the locals, who sold them sheep, cattle, and vegetables. Both men presented a report advocating the Table valley as a fort and garden for the East India fleets. [8] “ We say, therefore, that the Honourable Company, by the formation of a fort or redoubt, and also of a garden of such size as may be practicable or necessary at the above-mentioned Cabo de Boa Esperanza, upon a suitable spot in Table Valley, stationing there according to your pleasure sixty to seventy as well soldiers as sailors, and a few persons acquainted with gardening and horticulture, could raise, as well for the ships and people bound to India as for those returning thence, many kinds of fruit, as will hereafter be more particularly demonstrated. ” Excerpt from Jansz and Proot's report. [14] Under recommendation from Jan van Riebeeck, the Heeren XVII authorised the establishment of a fort at the Cape, and this the more hurriedly to preempt any further imperial maneuvers by Britain, France or Portugal. [34] Van Riebeeck, his family and seventy to eighty VOC personnel arrived there on 6 April 1652 after a journey of three and a half months. [34] Their immediate task was the establishment of some gardens, taking for this purpose all the best and richest ground" following this they were instructed to conduct a survey to determine the best pastureland for the grazing of cattle. [34] By 15 May they had nearly completed construction on the Castle of Good Hope, which was to be an easily defensible victualing station serving Dutch ships plying the Indian Ocean. [34] Dutch sailors appreciated the mild climate at the Cape, which allowed them to recuperate from their protracted periods of service in the tropical humidity of Southeast Asia. [45] VOC fleets bearing cargo from the Orient anchored in the Cape for a month, usually from March or April, when they were resupplied with water and provisions prior to completing their return voyage to the Netherlands. [45] In extent the new refreshment post was to be kept as confined as possible to reduce administrative expense. [44] Residents would associate amiably with the natives for the sake of livestock trade, but otherwise keep to themselves and their task of becoming self-sufficient. [44] As the VOC's primary goal was merchant enterprise, particularly its shipping network traversing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between the Netherlands and various ports in Asia, most of its territories consisted of coastal forts, factories, and isolated trading posts dependent entirely on indigenous host states. [46] The exercise of Dutch sovereignty, as well the large scale settlement of Dutch colonists, was therefore extremely limited at these sites. [46] During the VOC's history only two primary exceptions to the rule emerged: the Dutch East Indies and the Cape of Good Hope, through the formation of a large class of "vrijlieden" or "vrijburgers" free citizens. 46] The VOC operated under a strict corporate hierarchy which allowed it to formally assign classifications to those whom it determined fell within its legal purview. [46] Most Europeans within the VOC's registration and identification system were denoted either as Company employees or vrijburgers. [35] The legal classifications imposed upon every individual in the Company possessions determined their position in society and conferred restraints upon their actions. [46] VOC ordinances made a clear distinction between the "bonded" period of service, and the period of "freedom" that began once an employment contract ended. [47] In order to ensure former employees could be distinguished from workers still in the service of the Company, it was decided to provide them a "letter of freedom" a licence known as a vrijbrief. [47] European employees were repatriated to the Netherlands upon the termination of their contract, unless they successfully applied for a vrijbrief, in which they were charged a small fee and registered as vrijburgers in a Company record known collectively as the vrijboeken. [47] Fairly strict conditions were levied on those who aspired to become vrijburgers at the Cape of Good Hope. They had to be married Dutch citizens who were regarded as being "of good character" by the VOC and committed to at least twenty years' residence in South Africa. [34] Reflecting the multi-national nature of the workforce of the early modern trading companies, some foreigners, particularly Germans, were open to consideration as well. [34] If their application for vrijburger status was successful, the Company granted them plots of farmland of thirteen and a half morgen, which were tax exempt for twelve years. [34] They were also loaned tools and seeds. [48] The extent of their farming activities, however, remained heavily regulated: for example, the vrijburgers were ordered to focus on the cultivation of grain. [34] Each year their harvest was to be sold exclusively to the VOC at fixed prices. [48] They were forbidden from growing tobacco, producing vegetables for any purpose other than personal consumption, or purchasing cattle from the native Khoikhoi at rates which differed from those set by the VOC. [34] With time, these restrictions and other attempts by the VOC to control the settlers resulted in successive generations of vrijburgers and their descendants becoming increasingly localised in their loyalties and national identity and hostile towards the colonial government. [46] Around March 1657, Rijcklof van Goens, a senior VOC officer appointed as commissioner to the fledgling Dutch Cape Colony, ordered Jan van Riebeeck to help more employees succeed as vriburgers so the Company could save on their wages. [34] Although an overwhelming majority of the vrijburgers were farmers, some also stated their intention to seek employment as farm managers, fishermen, wagon-makers, tailors, or hunters. [34] A ship's carpenter was granted a tract of forest, from which he was permitted to sell timber, and one miller from Holland opened his own water-operated corn mill, the first of its kind in Southern Africa. [34] The colony initially did not do well, and many of the discouraged vrijburgers returned to VOC service or sought passage back to the Netherlands to pursue other opportunities. [49] Vegetable gardens were frequently destroyed by storms, and cattle lost in raids by the Khoikhoi, who were known to the Dutch as Hottentots. [49] There was also an unskilled labour shortage, which the VOC later resolved by importing slaves from Angola, Madagascar, and the East Indies. [49] In 1662 van Riebeeck was succeeded by Zacharias Wagenaer as governor of the Cape. Wagenaer was somewhat aloof towards the vrijburgers, whom he dismissed as "sodden, lazy, clumsy they do not pay proper attention to the [slaves] lent to them, or to their work in the fields, nor to their animals, for that reason seem wedded to the low level and cannot rid themselves of their debts. 49] When Wagenaer arrived, he observed that many of the unmarried vrijburgers were beginning to cohabit with their slaves, with the result that 75% of children born to Cape slaves at the time had a Dutch father. [50] 51] Wagenaer's response was to sponsor the immigration of Dutch women to the colony as potential wives for the settlers. [49] Upon the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Wagenaer was perturbed by the British capture of New Amsterdam and attacks on other Dutch outposts in the Americas and on the west African coast. [49] He increased the Cape garrison by about 300 troops and replaced the original earthen fortifications of the Castle of Good Hope with new ones of stone. [49] In 1672 there were 300 VOC officials, employees, soldiers and sailors at the Cape, compared to only about 64 vrijburgers, 39 of whom were married, with 65 children. [49] By 1687 the number had increased to about 254 vrijburgers, of whom 77 were married, with 231 children. [49] Simon van der Stel, who was appointed governor of the Cape in 1679, reversed the VOC's earlier policy of keeping the colony limited to the confines of the Cape peninsula itself and encouraged Dutch settlement further abroad, resulting in the founding of Stellenbosch. [49] Van der Stel persuaded 30 vrijburgers to settle in Stellenbosch and a few years afterwards the town received its own municipal administration and school. [49] The VOC was persuaded to seek more prospective European immigrants for the Cape after local officials noted that the cost of maintaining gardens to provision passing ships could be eliminated by outsourcing to a greater number of vrijburgers. [37] Furthermore, the size of the Cape garrison could be reduced if there were many colonists capable of being called up for militia service as needed. [37] Following the passage of the Edict of Fontainebleau, the Netherlands served as a major destination for French Huguenot refugees fleeing persecution at home. [52] In April 1688, the VOC agreed to sponsor the resettlement of over 100 Huguenots at the Cape. [16] Smaller numbers of Huguenots gradually arrived over the next decade, and by 1702 the community numbered close to 200. [53] Between 1689 and 1707 they were augmented by additional numbers of Dutch settlers sponsored by the VOC with grants of land and free passage to Africa. [16] Additionally, there were calls from the VOC administration to sponsor the immigration of more German settlers to the Cape, as long as they were Protestant. [54] VOC pamphlets began circulating in German cities exhorting the urban poor to seek their fortune in southern Africa. [54] Despite the increasing diversity of the colonial population, there was a degree of cultural assimilation due to intermarriage, and the almost universal adoption of the Dutch language. [55] The use of other European languages was discouraged by a VOC edict declaring that Dutch should be the exclusive language of education, administrative record, and education. [56] In 1752 the French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille visited the Cape and observed that the nearly all the third generation descendants of the original Huguenot and German settlers spoke Dutch as a first language. [53] Impact of the British occupation of the Cape [ edit] Long before the British annexed the Cape Colony, there were already large Dutch-speaking European settlements in the Cape Peninsula and beyond; by the time British rule became permanent in 1806 these had a population of over 26, 000. [39] There were, however, two distinct subgroups in the vrijburger population settled under the VOC. [57] The first were itinerant farmers who began to progressively settle further and further inland, seeking better pastures for their livestock and freedom from the VOC's petty regulations. [17] This community of settlers collectively identified themselves as Boers to describe their agricultural way of life. [17] Their farms were enormous by European standards, as the land was free and relatively underpopulated; they merely had to register them with the VOC, a process that was little more than a formality and became more irrelevant the further the Boers moved inland. [17] A few Boers adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle permanently and became known as trekboers. [58] The Boers were deeply suspicious of the centralised government and increasing complexities of administration at the Cape; they constantly migrated further from the reaches of the colonial officialdom whenever it attempted to regulate their activities. [59] By the mid eighteenth century the Boers had penetrated almost a thousand kilometres into South Africa's interior beyond the Cape of Good Hope, at which point they encountered the Xhosa people, who were migrating southwards from the opposite direction. [17] Competition between the two communities over resources on the frontier sparked the Xhosa Wars. [17] Harsh Boer attitudes towards black Africans were permanently shaped by their contact with the Xhosa, which bred insecurity and fear on the frontier. [59] The second subgroup of the vrijburger population became known as the Cape Dutch and remained concentrated in the southwestern Cape and especially the areas closer to Cape Town. [60] They were likelier to be urban dwellers, more educated, and typically maintained greater cultural ties to the Netherlands than the Boers. [61] The Cape Dutch formed the backbone of the colony's market economy and included the small entrepreneurial class. [22] These colonists had vested economic interests in the Cape peninsula and were not inclined to venture inland because of the great difficulties in maintaining contact with a viable market. [22] This was in sharp contrast with the Boers on the frontier, who lived on the margins of the market economy. [22] For this reason the Cape Dutch could not easily participate in migrations to escape the colonial system, and the Boer strategy of social and economic withdrawal was not viable for them. [59] Their response to grievances with the Cape government was to demand political reform and greater representation, a practice that became commonplace under Dutch and subsequently British rule. [59] In 1779, for example, hundreds of Cape burghers smuggled a petition to Amsterdam demanding an end to VOC corruption and contradictory laws. [59] Unlike the Boers, the contact most Cape Dutch had with black Africans were predominantly peaceful, and their racial attitudes were more paternal than outright hostile. [59] Meanwhile, the VOC underwent a period of commercial decline beginning in the late eighteenth century which ultimately resulted in its bankruptcy. [62] The company had suffered immense losses to its trade profits as a result of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War and was heavily in debt with European creditors. [62] In 1794 the Dutch government intervened and assumed formal administration of the Cape Colony. [17] However, events at the Cape were overtaken by turmoil in the Netherlands, which was occupied by Napoleon during the Flanders Campaign. [63] This opened the Cape to French naval fleets. [17] To protect her own prosperous maritime shipping routes, Great Britain occupied the fledgling colony by force until 1803. [63] From 1806 to 1814 the Cape was again governed as a British military dependency, whose sole importance to the Royal Navy was its strategic relation to Indian maritime traffic. [63] The British formally assumed permanent administrative control around 1815, as a result of the Treaty of Paris. [63] Relations between some of the colonists and the new British administration quickly soured. [64] The British brought liberal attitudes towards slavery and treatment of the indigenous peoples to the Cape, which were utterly alien to the colonists. [64] Furthermore, they insisted that the Cape Colony finance its own affairs by taxes levied on the white population, an unpopular measure which bred resentment. [17] By 1812 new attorneys-general and judges had been imported from England and many of the preexisting VOC era institutions abolished, namely the Dutch magistrate system and the only vestige of representative government at the Cape, the burgher senate. [22] The new judiciary then established circuit courts, which brought colonial authority directly to the frontier. [59] These circuit courts were permitted to try colonists for any alleged abuses of their slaves or indentured servants. [59] Most of those tried for these offences were frontier Boers; the charges were usually brought by British missionaries and the courts themselves staffed by unsympathetic and liberal Cape Dutch. [59] The Boers, who perceived most of the charges levelled against them to be flimsy or exaggerated, often refused to answer their court summons. [59] In 1815, a Cape police unit was dispatched to arrest a Boer for failure to appear in court on charges of cruelty towards his Khoisan servants; the colonist fired on the troopers when they entered his property and was killed. [59] The controversy which surrounded the incident led to the abortive Slachter's Nek Rebellion, in which a number of Boers took up arms against the British. [17] British officials retaliated by hanging five Boers for insurrection. [63] In 1828 the Cape governor declared that all native inhabitants but slaves were to have the rights of citizens, in respect of security and property ownership, on parity with whites. [63] This had the effect of further alienating the Boers. [63] Boer resentment of successive British administrators continued to grow throughout the late 1820s and early 1830s, especially with the official imposition of the English language. [58] This replaced Dutch with English as the language used in the Cape's judicial system, putting the Boers at a disadvantage, as most spoke little or no English at all. [63] Bridling at what they considered an unwarranted intrusion into their way of life, some in the Boer community began to consider selling their farms and venturing deep into South Africa's unmapped interior to preempt further disputes and live completely independent from British rule. [17] From their perspective, the Slachter's Nek Rebellion had demonstrated the futility of an armed uprising against the new order the British had entrenched at the Cape; one result was that the Boers who might have otherwise been inclined to take up arms began preparing for a mass emigration from the colony instead. [22] The Great Trek [ edit] In the 1830s and 1840s, an organised migration of an estimated 14, 000 Boers, known as voortrekkers, across the Cape Colony's frontier began. [65] The voortrekkers departed the colony in a series of parties, taking with them all their livestock and portable property, as well as their dependents and slaves. [65] They had the skills to maintain their own wagons and firearms, but remained dependent on equally mobile traders for vital commodities such as gunpowder and sugar. [65] Nevertheless, one of their goals was to sever their ties with the Cape's commercial network by gaining access to foreign traders and ports in east Africa, well beyond the British sphere of influence. [65] Many of the Boers who participated in the Great Trek had varying motives. While most were driven by some form of disenchantment with British policies, their secondary objectives ranged from seeking more desirable grazing land for their cattle to a desire to retain their slaves after the abolition of slavery at the Cape. [65] 66] The Great Trek also split the Afrikaner community along social and geographical lines, driving a wedge between the voortrekkers and those who remained in the Cape Colony. [67] Only about a fifth of the colony's Dutch-speaking white population at the time participated in the Great Trek. [17] The Dutch Reformed Church, to which most of the Boers belonged, condemned the migration. [17] Despite their hostility towards the British, there were also Boers who chose to remain in the Cape of their own accord. [64] For its part, the distinct Cape Dutch community remained loyal to the British Crown and focused its efforts on building political organisations seeking representative government; its lobbying efforts were partly responsible for the establishment of the Cape Qualified Franchise in 1853. [67] As important as the Trek was to the formation of Boer ethnic identity, so were the running conflicts with various indigenous groups along the way. One conflict central to the construction of Boer identity occurred with the Zulu in the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal. The Boers who entered Natal discovered that the land they wanted came under the authority of the Zulu King Dingane ka Senzangakhona, who ruled that part of what subsequently became KwaZulu-Natal. The British had a small port colony (the future Durban) there but were unable to seize the whole of area from the war-ready Zulus, and only kept to the Port of Natal. The Boers found the land safe from the British and sent an un-armed Boer land treaty delegation under Piet Retief on 6 February 1838, to negotiate with the Zulu King. The negotiations went well and a contract between Retief and Dingane was signed. After the signing, however, Dingane's forces surprised and killed the members of the delegation; a large-scale massacre of the Boers followed. Zulu impis (regiments) attacked Boer encampments in the Drakensberg foothills at what was later called Blaauwkrans and Weenen, killing women and children along with men. (By contrast, in earlier conflicts the trekkers had experienced along the eastern Cape frontier, the Xhosa had refrained from harming women and children. ) A commando of 470 men arrived to help the settlers. On 16 December 1838, the Voortrekkers under the command of Andries Pretorius confronted about 10, 000 Zulus at the prepared positions. [68] The Boers suffered three injuries without any fatalities. Due to the blood of 3, 000 slain Zulus that stained the Ncome River, the conflict afterwards became known as the Battle of Blood River. In present-day South Africa, 16 December remains a celebrated public holiday, initially called "Dingane's Day. After 1952, the holiday was officially named Day of the Covenant, changed to Day of the Vow in 1980 (Mackenzie 1999:69. clarification needed] and to Day of Reconciliation in 1994. The Boers saw their victory at the Battle of Blood River as evidence that they had found divine favour for their exodus from British rule. citation needed] Boer republics [ edit] Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War After defeating the Zulu and the recovery of the treaty between Dingane and Retief, the Voortrekkers proclaimed the Natalia Republic. In 1843, Britain annexed Natal and many Boers trekked inwards again. Due to the return of British rule, Boers fled to the frontiers to the north-west of the Drakensberg mountains, and onto the highveld of the Transvaal and Transoranje. These areas were mostly unoccupied due to conflicts in the course of the genocide Mfecane wars of the Zulus on the local Basuthu population who used it as summer grazing for their cattle. Some Boers ventured far beyond the present-day borders of South Africa, north as far as present-day Zambia and Angola. Others reached the Portuguese colony of Delagoa Bay, later called Lourenço Marques and subsequently Maputo – the capital of Mozambique. The Boers created sovereign states in what is now South Africa: de Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (the South African Republic) and the Orange Free State were the most prominent and lasted the longest. The discovery of goldfields awakened British interest in the Boer republics, and the two Boer Wars resulted: The First Boer War (1880–1881) and the Second Boer War (1899–1902. The Boers won the first war and retained their independence. The second ended with British victory and annexation of the Boer areas into the British colonies. The British employed scorched-earth tactics and held many Boers in concentration camps as a means to separate commandos from their source of shelter, food and supply. The strategy was employed effectively but an estimated 27, 000 Boers (mainly women and children under sixteen) died in these camps from hunger and disease. Post Boer War diaspora [ edit] In the 1890s, some Boers trekked into Mashonaland, where they were concentrated at the town of Enkeldoorn, now Chivhu. [69] After the second Boer War, more Boers left South Africa. Starting in 1902 to 1908 a large group of around 650 Afrikaners [70] emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina (most notably to the towns of Comodoro Rivadavia and Sarmiento. 71] 72] choosing to settle there due to its similarity to the Karoo region of South Africa. [70] Another group emigrated to British-ruled Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the 1930s as a result of warfare there amongst indigenous people. A third group, under the leadership of General Ben Viljoen, emigrated to Chihuahua in northern Mexico and to the states of Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas in the south-western USA. Others migrated to other parts of Africa, including German East Africa (present day Tanzania, mostly near Arusha. 69] A significant number of Afrikaners also went as " Dorsland Trekkers " to Angola, where a large group settled on the Huíla Plateau, in Humpata, and smaller communities on the Central Highlands. [73] They constituted a closed community which rejected integration as well as innovation, became impoverished in the course of several decades, and returned to South West Africa and South Africa in waves. [74] 75] Afrikaner diaspora in Africa and the world.    unavailable    >10, 000    10, 000+    1, 000, 000+ A relatively large group of Boers settled in Kenya. The first wave of migrants consisted of individual families, followed by larger multiple-family treks. [69] Some had arrived by 1904, as documented by the caption of a newspaper photograph noting a tent town for "some of the early settlers from South Africa" on what became the campus of the University of Nairobi. [76] Probably the first to arrive was W. J. Van Breda (1903) followed by John de Waal and Frans Arnoldi at Nakuru (1906. Jannie De Beer's family resided at Athi River, while Ignatius Gouws resided at Solai. [69] The second wave of migrants is exemplified by Jan Janse van Rensburg 's trek. Janse van Rensburg left the Transvaal on an exploratory trip to British East Africa in 1906 from Lourenço Marques (then Portuguese) Mozambique. Janse van Rensburg was inspired by an earlier Boer migrant, Abraham Joubert, who had moved to Nairobi from Arusha in 1906, along with others. When Joubert visited the Transvaal that year, Janse van Rensburg met with him. [69] Sources disagree about whether Janse van Rensburg received guarantees for land from the Governor of the East Africa Protectorate, Sir James Hayes Sadler. [69] On his return to the Transvaal, van Rensburg recruited about 280 Afrikaners (comprising either 47 or 60 families) to accompany him to British East Africa. On 9 July 1908 his party sailed in the chartered ship SS Windhuk from Lourenço Marques to Mombasa, from where they boarded a train for Nairobi. The party travelled by five trains to Nakuru. [77] In 1911 the last of the large trek groups departed for Kenya, when some 60 families from the Orange Free State boarded the SS Skramstad in Durban under leadership of C. Cloete. [77] But migration dwindled, partly due to the British secretary of state's (then Lord Crewe) cash requirements for immigrants. When the British granted self-government to the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State in 1906 and 1907, respectively, the pressure for emigration decreased. A trickle of individual trekker families continued to migrate into the 1950s. [69] A combination of factors spurred on Boer migration. Some, like Janse van Rensburg and Cloete, had collaborated with the British, or had surrendered during the Boer War. [69] These joiners and hensoppers ( hands-uppers" subsequently experienced hostility from other Afrikaners. Many migrants were extremely poor and had subsisted on others' property. [77] Collaborators tended to move to British East Africa, while those who had fought to the end (called bittereinders) initially preferred German South West Africa. [69] One of the best known Boer settlements in the British East Africa Protectorate became established at Eldoret, in the south west of what became known as Kenya in 1920. By 1934 some 700 Boers lived here, near the Uganda border. [78] South West Africa [ edit] With the onset of the First World War in 1914, the Allies asked the Union of South Africa to attack the German territory of South West Africa, resulting in the South West Africa Campaign (1914–1915. Armed forces under the leadership of General Louis Botha defeated the German forces, who were unable to put up much resistance to the overwhelming South African forces. Boer women and children in British concentration camps Many Boers, who had little love or respect for Britain, objected to the use of the " children from the concentration camps " to attack the anti-British Germans, resulting in the Maritz Rebellion of 1914, which was quickly quelled by the government forces. Some Boers subsequently moved to South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa until its independence in 1990, after which the country adopted the name Namibia. Genealogy [ edit] Scholars have traditionally considered Afrikaners to be a homogeneous population of Dutch ancestry, subject to a significant founder effect. [79] This simplistic viewpoint has been challenged by recent studies suggesting multiple uncertainties regarding the genetic composition of white South Africans at large and Afrikaners in particular. [79] Afrikaners are descended, to varying degrees, from Dutch, German and French Huguenot immigrants, along with minor percentages of other Europeans and indigenous African peoples. [80] 81] The first mixed race marriage which took place in Cape Town in 1664 was that of Krotoa, a Khoi woman, and Peder Havgaard, a Danish surgeon. Krotoa and Peder's descendants are the Pelzer, Kruger, Steenkamp and other Afrikaner families. [82] Although the Cape Colony was administered and initially settled by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) a number of foreigners also boarded ships in the Netherlands to settle there. Their numbers can be easily reconstructed from censuses of the Cape rather than passenger lists, taking into account VOC employees who later returned to Europe. [8] Some Europeans also arrived from elsewhere in Holland's sphere, especially German soldiers being discharged from colonial service. [54] As a result, by 1691 over a quarter of the white population of South Africa was not ethnically Dutch. [8] The number of permanent settlers of both sexes and all ages, according to figures available at the onset of British rule, numbered 26, 720, 8] of whom 50% were Dutch, 27% German, 17% French and 5. 5% other blood. [39] This demographic breakdown of the community just prior to the end of the Dutch administration has been used in many subsequent studies to represent the ethnic makeup of modern Afrikaners, a practise criticised by some academics such as Dr. Johannes Heese. [12] Based on his genealogical research of the period from 1657 to 1867, Dr. Johannes Heese in his study Die Herkoms van die Afrikaners estimated an average ethnic admixture for Afrikaners of 35. 5% Dutch, 34. 4% German, 13. 9% French, 7. 2% non-European, 2. 6% English, 2. 8% other European and 3. 6% unknown. [12] 30] 18 [83] Heese achieved this conclusion by recording all the wedding dates and number of children of each immigrant. He then divided the period between 1657 and 1867 into six thirty-year blocs, and working under the assumption that earlier colonists contributed more to the gene pool, multiplied each child's bloodline by 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1 according to respective period. [79] Heese argued that previous studies wrongly classified some German progenitors as Dutch, although for the purposes of his own study he also reclassified a number of Scandinavian (especially Danish) progenitors as "German. 32] Drawing heavily on Christoffel Coetzee de Villiers's Geslacht Register der Oude Kaapsche Familien, British historian George McCall Theal estimated an admixture of 67% Dutch, with a nearly equal contribution of roughly 17% from the Huguenots and Germans. [32] 84] Theal argued that most studies suggesting a higher percentage of German ancestry among Afrikaners wrongly counted as "German" all those who came from German-speaking Swiss cantons and ignored the VOC's policy of recruiting settlers among the Dutch diaspora living in the border regions of several German states. [37] He also pointed out the longstanding preponderance of Dutch women in the colony, and the fact that most of the German vrijburgers took Dutch wives. [37] The degree of intermixing among Afrikaners may be attributed to the unbalanced sex ratio which existed under Dutch governance. [85] Only a handful of VOC employees who sailed from the Netherlands were allowed to bring their families with them, and the Dutch never employed European women in a full-time capacity. Between 1657 and 1806 no more than 454 women arrived at the Cape, as compared to the 1, 590 male colonists. [54] One of the most fundamental demographic consequences was that white South African women, much like their counterparts in colonial North America, began to marry much younger and consequently bear more children than Western Europeans. [85] Another was the astonishingly high occurrence of inter-family marriages from the matrilineal aspect. These were reinforced by the familial interdependence of the Cape's credit and mortgage obligations. [85] Afrikaner families thus became larger in size, more interconnected, and clannish than those of any other colonial establishment in the world. [85] Some of the more common Afrikaner surnames include Botha, Pretorius and van der Merwe. [86] As in other cases where large population groups have been propagated by a relatively small pool of progenitors, Afrikaners have also experienced a dramatic increase in the frequency of some otherwise rare deleterious ailments, including variegate porphyria. [79] Non-European ancestry [ edit] According to a genetic study in February 2019, almost all Afrikaners have admixture from non-Europeans. The total amount of non-European ancestry is 4. 8% of which 2. 1% are of African ancestry and 2. 7% Asian/Native American ancestry. Among the 77 Afrikaners investigated, 6. 5% had more than 10% non-European admixture, 27. 3% had between 5 and 10% 59. 7% had between 1 and 5% and 6. 5% below 1. It appears that some 3. 4% of the non-European admixture can be traced to enslaved peoples who were brought to the Cape from other regions during colonial times. Only 1. 38% of the admixture is attributed to the local Khoe-San people. [87] Black Afrikaners [ edit] Approximately 100 black families who identify as Afrikaners live in the settlement of Onverwacht, established in 1886 near the mining town of Cullinan. Members of the community descend from the freed slaves who had accompanied Voortrekkers who settled in the area. [88] 89] 90] 91] Modern history [ edit] Apartheid era [ edit] Part of a series on Apartheid Events 1948 general election Coloured vote constitutional crisis 1956 Treason Trial Sharpeville massacre Rivonia Trial Soweto uprising Church Street bombing Trojan Horse Incident Khotso House bombing Cape Town peace march CODESA Assassination of Chris Hani Saint James Church massacre Shell House massacre Organisations ANC APLA IFP AWB BBB Black Sash CCB Conservative Party DP ECC FOSATU PP RP PFP HNP MK PAC UDF Broederbond National Party COSATU SACC SADF SAIC SAMA SAP SACP State Security Council People P. W. Botha Steve Biko Mangosuthu Buthelezi F. de Klerk Ruth First Bram Fischer Arthur Goldreich Chris Hani Bantu Holomisa Joel Joffe Ahmed Kathrada Albert Luthuli Winnie Madikizela-Mandela Mac Maharaj D. F. Malan Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Thabo Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Benjamin Moloise Albertina Sisulu Walter Sisulu JG Strijdom Joe Slovo Robert Sobukwe Helen Suzman Adelaide Tambo Oliver Tambo Eugène Terre'Blanche Desmond Tutu H. Verwoerd B. Vorster Jacob Zuma Places Bantustan District Six Robben Island Sophiatown South-West Africa Soweto Sun City Vlakplaas Related topics Afrikaner nationalism Apartheid in popular culture Apartheid legislation Cape Qualified Franchise Freedom Charter Sullivan Principles Kairos Document Disinvestment campaign Project Coast Internal resistance to apartheid Music in the movement against apartheid Category v t e In South Africa, an Afrikaner minority party, the National Party, came to power in 1948 and enacted a series of segregationist laws favouring White people known as apartheid, meaning "separateness. These laws allowed for the systematic persecution of opposition leaders and attempted to enforce general white supremacy by classifying all South African inhabitants into racial groups. Non-White political participation was outlawed, Black citizenship revoked, and the entire public sphere, including education, residential areas, medical care and common areas such as public transport, beaches and amenities, was segregated. Apartheid was officially abolished in 1991 after decades of widespread unrest by opponents who were seeking equal rights, led by supporters of the United Democratic Front, Pan-African Congress, South African Communist Party, and African National Congress, and a long international embargo against South Africa. [92] The effective end to apartheid, however, is widely regarded as the 1994 general election, the first fully democratic, multi-racial election. It took place following a long series of negotiations involving the National Party government under President Frederik Willem de Klerk, the ANC under Nelson Mandela, and other parties. [93] The African National Congress won and Mandela was elected as President. Post-apartheid era [ edit] Efforts are being made by some Afrikaners to secure minority rights. Protection of minority rights is fundamental to the new 1996 post-apartheid Constitution of South Africa. These efforts include the Volkstaat movement. In contrast, a handful of Afrikaners have joined the ruling African National Congress party, which is overwhelmingly supported by South Africa's Black majority. To right decades of discrimination, Employment Equity legislation favours employment of Black (African, Indian, Chinese and Coloured population groups, White women, disabled people) South Africans over White men. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further favours Blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives which empower Black South Africans as important criteria when awarding tenders. However, private enterprise adheres to this legislation voluntarily. [94] Some reports indicate a growing number of Whites living in poverty compared to the apartheid era, and attribute this change to such laws. In 2006 some 350, 000 Afrikaners were classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150, 000 were struggling to survive. [95] 96] This decline among them, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to many Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country. In the early 2000s, Genocide Watch theorised that farm attacks constituted early warning signs of genocide against Afrikaners. It criticised the South African government for its inaction on the of issue, noting that, since 1991, ethno-European farmers" which included non-Afrikaner farmers of European race in their report) were being murdered at a rate four times higher than that of the general South African population. [97] As of the 1996 census, 68, 606 out of the 749, 637 people in the agriculture and hunting sector were white. [98] Since 1994, close to 3, 000 farmers have been murdered in thousands of farm attacks. [99] Afrikaner diaspora and emigration [ edit] Since 1994, significant numbers of White people have emigrated from South Africa. Large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities have developed in the UK and other developed countries. Between 1995-2005, more than one million South Africans emigrated overseas, citing the high rate of violent and racially motivated Black on White crime as the main reason to leave. [100] Farmers have also emigrated to other parts of Africa (e. g. North Eastern Congo) to develop efficient commercial farming there. [101] Geography [ edit] Namibia [ edit] There were 133, 324 speakers of Afrikaans in Namibia, forming 9. 5% of the total national population, according to the 1991 census. The majority identify with the Coloured and Baster communities of colour. [102] Afrikaners are mostly found in Windhoek and in the Southern provinces; they have a population of around 100, 000 in Namibia. [102] Global presence [ edit] A significant number of Afrikaners have migrated to Commonwealth nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Other popular destinations include the Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, and Hong Kong. Some have also settled in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Qatar. Numerous young Afrikaners have taken advantage of working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdom, as well as the Netherlands and Belgium, to gain work experience. The scheme under which UK working holiday visas were issued ended on 27 November 2008; this was replaced by the Tier 5 (Youth Mobility) visa. South Africa has been excluded from the working holiday visa programme in the UK, Belgium, Netherlands, and the rest of the EU. As of 2011, Georgia is encouraging Afrikaner immigration to assist in reviving the country's agriculture industry, which has fallen on hard times. [103] In 2018, there were reports that Russia might welcome 15, 000 Afrikaners to southern Russia. [104] Culture [ edit] Religion [ edit] At the time of settlement, Dutch traders and others came out of a majority- Protestant area, where the Reformation had resulted in high rates of literacy in the Netherlands. Boers in South Africa were part of the Calvinist tradition in the northern Europe Protestant countries. The original South African Boer republics were founded on the principles of the Dutch Reformed Church. Missionaries established new congregations on the frontier and churches were the center of communities. In 1985, 92% of Afrikaners identified as members of the Reformed churches that developed from this background. Pentecostal churches have also attracted new members. In April 2017, some million people, mostly Afrikaners, were expected at a prayer gathering held by Angus Buchan in Bloemfontein. [105] Language [ edit] The Afrikaans language changed over time from the Dutch spoken by the first white settlers at the Cape. From the late 17th century, the form of Dutch spoken at the Cape developed differences, mostly in morphology but also in pronunciation and accent and, to a lesser extent, in syntax and vocabulary, from that of the Netherlands, although the languages are still similar enough to be mutually intelligible. Settlers who arrived speaking German and French soon shifted to using Dutch and later Afrikaans. The process of language change was influenced by the languages spoken by slaves, Khoikhoi and people of mixed descent, as well as by Cape Malay, Zulu, British and Portuguese. While the Dutch of the Netherlands remained the official language, the new dialect, often known as Cape Dutch, African Dutch, kitchen Dutch" or taal (meaning "language" in Afrikaans) developed into a separate language by the 19th century, with much work done by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners and other writers such as Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven. In a 1925 act of Parliament, Afrikaans was given equal status with Dutch as one of the two official languages (English being the second) of the Union of South Africa. There was much objection to the attempt to legislate the creation of Afrikaans as a new language. Marthinus Steyn, a prominent jurist and politician, and others were vocal in their opposition. Today, Afrikaans is recognised as one of the eleven official languages of the new South Africa, and is the third largest mother tongue spoken in South Africa. In June 2013, the Department of Basic Education included Afrikaans as an African language to be compulsory for all pupils, according to a new policy. Afrikaans is offered at many universities outside of South Africa including in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Russia and the United States. [106] Literature [ edit] Afrikaners have a long literary tradition, and have produced a number of notable novelists and poets, including Eugene Marais, Uys Krige, Elisabeth Eybers, Breyten Breytenbach, André Brink, C. Langenhoven and Etienne Leroux. Nobel Prize winner J. M. Coetzee is of Afrikaner descent, but spoke English at home as a child in Cape Town. He has translated some works from Afrikaans and Dutch into English, but writes only in English. Arts [ edit] Music is probably the most popular art form among Afrikaners. While the traditional Boeremusiek ( Boer music" and Volkspele ( people games" folk dancing enjoyed popularity in the past, most Afrikaners today favour a variety of international genres and light popular Afrikaans music. American country and western music has enjoyed great popularity and has a strong following among many South Africans. Some also enjoy a social dance event called a sokkie. The South African rock band Seether has a hidden track on their album Karma and Effect titled Kom Saam Met My ( Come With Me. sung in Afrikaans. There is also an underground rock music movement and bands like the controversial Fokofpolisiekar have a large following. The television Channel MK (channel) also supports local Afrikaans music and mainly screens videos from the Afrikaans Rock genre. [107] Afrikaner classical musicians include the pianists Wessel van Wyk, Ben Schoeman, and Petronel Malan, and the music departments of the various universities ( Pretoria, Stellenbosch, Potchefstroom, Free State) that started as Afrikaans universities still are renowned. In the 20th century, Mimi Coertse, an internationally renowned opera singer, was well known. She is also known as African Lieder interpreter by Stephanus Le Roux Marais. The world-renowned UNISA music exams include a section of South African contemporary music, which acknowledges Afrikaner composers. The contemporary musical Ons vir jou, dealing with the Second Boer War, featured a book by Deon Opperman and a score by Sean Else and Johan Vorster of the band Eden. Afrikaner film musicals flourished in the 1950s and 1960s, and have returned in the 21st century with two popular films, Liefling and Pretville, featuring singers such as Bobby van Jaarsveld, Steve Hofmeyr, and Kevin Leo. [108. circular reference] Cuisine [ edit] Afrikaner cuisine has contributed three unique terms to the South African lexicon, namely boerekos, potjiekos and braaivleis, although the latter (meaning “grilled meat”) has actually expanded to a common South African habit. A typical recipe for boerekos consists of meat (usually roasted in a pan or oven) vegetables such as green beans, roots or peas, and starch such as potatoes or rice, with sauce made in the pot in which the meat is cooked. The dish can also use pumpkins or sweet potatoes, and some of the ingredients may be further processed into pampoenkoekies (“pumpkin biscuits, ” pumpkin baked in a kind of puff) or plaasboontjies ( peanuts" consisting of green beans cooked and crushed with potatoes and onions. Afrikaners eat most types of meat such as mutton, beef, chicken, pork and various game species, but the meat of draft animals such as horses and donkeys is rarely eaten and is not part of traditional cuisine. East Indian influence emerges in dishes such as bobotie and curry and the use of turmeric and other spices in cooking. Afrikaner households like to eat combinations such as pap-and-sausage, curry (meat) and rice and even fish and chips (although the latter are bought rather than self-prepared. Afrikaners also love biltong, droëwors, koeksisters, melktert, and a variety of traditionally homemade but increasingly storebought pastries. Sport [ edit] Rugby, cricket and golf are generally considered to be the most popular sports among Afrikaners. Rugby in particular is considered one of the central pillars of the Afrikaner community. The national rugby team, the Springboks, did not compete in the first two rugby world cups in 1987 and 1991 because of anti-apartheid sporting boycotts of South Africa but later on the Springboks won the 1995, 2007, and 2019 Rugby World Cups. Boere-sport also played a big role in the Afrikaner history. It consisted of a variety of sports like tug of war, three-legged races, jukskei, skilpadloop (tortoise walk) and other games. Numismatics [ edit] The world's first ounce-denominated gold coin, the Krugerrand, was struck at the South African Mint on 3 July 1967. The name Krugerrand was derived from Kruger (after President Paul Kruger) and the rand monetary unit of South Africa. In April 2007, the South African Mint coined a collectors R1 gold coin commemorating the Afrikaner people as part of its cultural series, depicting the Great Trek across the Drakensberg mountains. Institutions [ edit] Cultural [ edit] The Afrikaanse Taal en Kultuurvereniging (ATKV. Afrikaans Language and Culture Association" is responsible for promoting the Afrikaans language and culture. Die Voortrekkers is a youth movement for Afrikaners in South Africa and Namibia with a membership of over 10 000 active members to promote cultural values, maintaining norms and standards as Christians, and being accountable members of public society. [109] Political [ edit] This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June 2014) An estimated 88% of Afrikaners supported the Democratic Alliance, the official opposition party, in the 2014 general election. [110] The Democratic Alliance is a Liberal Party and a full member of Liberal International. Smaller numbers are involved in nationalist or separatist political organisations. The Freedom Front Plus is an Afrikaner ethnic political party which lobbies for minority rights to be extended to Afrikaners. The Freedom Front Plus is also leading the Volkstaat initiative and is closely associated with the small town of Orania. [111] Freedom Front Plus leader Dr  Pieter Mulder served as Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in the Cabinet of President Jacob Zuma from 2009 to 2014. Only approximately 2% of Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans vote for the ruling ANC. citation needed] Some prominent Afrikaner ANC Cabinet Ministers include the Minister of Science and Technology Derek Hanekom, the Minister of Tourism and former leader of the New National Party Marthinus van Schalkwyk, Deputy Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development Andries Nel, Deputy Minister of Sport and Recreation Gert Oosthuizen and former ANC Spokesman Carl Niehaus. In an online poll of the Beeld newspaper during November 2012, in which nearly 11, 000 Afrikaners participated, 42% described themselves as conservative and 36% as liberal. [112] Social attitudes have become increasingly liberal since the end of apartheid in the 1990s, and in a 2015 poll 57% of Afrikaners claimed to oppose abortion on demand while 46% claimed to be opposed to Homosexualism. citation needed] See also [ edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Afrikaners. Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner-Jews Boer Cape Coloureds Cape Dutch Cape Malays Ethnic groups in Africa Huguenots in South Africa South African-American White South Africans White Africans of European ancestry Volkstaat Notes [ edit] a b c Ethnologue ^ The 2011 Australian Census records 5, 079 Australian residents who explicitly identify as Afrikaner (that is, excluding those who identified as "African" or "South African. while 35, 031 identified as Afrikaans speakers. [5] The 2013 New Zealand census records 1, 197 New Zealand residents who explicitly identify as Afrikaner (that is, excluding those who identified as "African" or "South African. while 27, 387 identified as Afrikaans speakers. [6] References [ edit] "Afrikaners constitute nearly three million out of approximately 53 million inhabitants of the Republic of South Africa, plus as many as half a million in diaspora. Afrikaner – Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved 24 August 2014. ^ a b c Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 26. ISBN   9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as Afrikaans in South Africa's 2011 Census was 2, 710, 461. The total white population with a first language specified was 4, 461, 409 and the total population was 51, 770, 560. ^ Demographics. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ Chris McIntyre. Botswana: Okavango Delta - Chobe - Northern Kalahari (2010 ed. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. p.  37. ISBN   978-1-84162-308-5. ^ The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2011 Census – Department of Immigration and Border Protection. p. 29, p. 55. Retrieved 8 August 2014. ^ 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity Archived 15 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Excel file) – Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 8 August 2014. ^ Afrikaans is making a comeback in Argentina - along with koeksisters and milktart. Business Insider South Africa. Retrieved 11 October 2019. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Entry: Cape Colony. Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 4 Part 2: Brain to Casting. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1933. James Louis Garvin, editor. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kaplan, Irving. Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa (PDF. pp. 46–771. ^ Census 2011 Census in Brief" PDF. 2011. p. 23. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019. ^ K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Moletsane, Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action, p. 91 ^ a b c J. A. Heese (1971. Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, 1657–1867 [ The origin of the Afrikaner] in Afrikaans. Cape Town: A. Balkema. OCLC   1821706. OL   5361614M. ^ van der Wouden, Ton. Roots of Afrikaans: Selected writings of Hans den Besten. p. 210. ^ a b c d e f g h i Alexander Wilmot & John Centlivres Chase. History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope: From Its Discovery to the Year 1819 (2010 ed. Claremont: David Philip (Pty) Ltd. pp. 1–548. ISBN   978-1144830159. ^ a b Van Goor, Jurrien. Prelude to Colonialism: The Dutch in Asia (2005 ed. Verloren B. V., Uitgeverij. pp. 9–83. ISBN   978-9065508065. ^ a b c d Keegan, Timothy. Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (1996 ed. David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd. pp.  15–37. ISBN   978-0813917351. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Greaves, Adrian. The Tribe that Washed its Spears: The Zulus at War (2013 ed. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. pp. 36–55. ISBN   978-1629145136. ^ Theale, George McCall (4 May 1882. Chronicles of Cape Commanders, or, An abstract of original manuscripts in the Archives of the Cape Colony. Cape Town: WA Richards & Sons 1882. pp 24—387. ^ Nigel Worden, Elizabeth Van Heyningen & Vivian Bickford-Smith. Cape Town: The Making of a City (2012 ed. New Africa Books. pp. 51–93. ISBN   978-0864866561. ^ Groenewald, Gerald. D'Maris Coffman, Adrian Leonard & William O'Reilly (ed. The Atlantic World (2015 ed. Routledge Books. pp. 15–37. ISBN   978-0415467049. ^ Worden, Nigel. Slavery in Dutch South Africa (2010 ed. Cambridge University Press. pp. 94–140. ISBN   978-0521152662. ^ a b c d e f Tamarkin, Mordechai. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners: The Imperial Colossus and the Colonial Parish Pump (1996 ed. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. pp. 24–92. ISBN   978-0714642673. ^ De Klerk dismantles apartheid in South Africa. BBC News. 2 February 1990. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009. ^ Afrikaner. Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September 2005.   (Subscription or UK public library membership required. ) Minahan, James (2000. One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 769. ISBN   0313309841. Retrieved 25 May 2013. ^ S. Martin, Faith Negotiating Loyalties: An Exploration of South African Christianity Through a Reading of the Theology of H. Richard Niebuhr (University Press of America, 2008) ISBN   0761841113, pp. 53-54. ^ CH Thomas. Origin of the Anglo-Boer War Revealed: The Conspiracy of the 19th Century Unmasked (1900 ed. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 144–146. ISBN   9781437510454. ^ a b Rian Malan. The Lion Sleeps Tonight (2012 ed. Grove Press UK. ISBN   978-1-61185-994-2. ^ LETTER: I, too, am an African. Business Day Live. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ a b Hermann Giliomee; Hermann Buhr Giliomee (January 2003. The Afrikaners: Biography of a People. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN   978-1-85065-714-9. Retrieved 5 February 2016. ^ Breyten Breytenbach. Notes from the Middle World (2009 ed. Haymarket Books. p. 73-74. ISBN   978-1-61185-994-2. Retrieved 5 September 2019. ^ a b c d Vernon February. The Afrikaners of South Africa (1991 ed. Routledge Publishers. pp. 8–14. ISBN   978-0710303530. ^ The Afrikaners of South Africa (1991 ed. Kegan Paul International. ISBN   0-7103-0353-X. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hunt, John (2005. Campbell, Heather-Ann (ed. Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652-1708. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 13–35. ISBN   978-1904744955. ^ a b Parthesius, Robert. Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters: The Development of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) Shipping Network in Asia 1595-1660. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN   978-9053565179. ^ Coetzee, J. H. (1978. Du Toit, Brian (ed. Ethnicity in Modern Africa. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp. 235–245. ISBN   0-89158-314-9. ^ a b c d e Walker, Eric (1964. A History of Southern Africa. London: William Clowes and Sons, Publishers. pp. 47–61, 81–92. ASIN   B0028A9JIE. ^ Slavery. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ a b c Colenbrander, Herman. De Afkomst Der Boeren (1902. Kessinger Publishing 2010. ISBN   978-1167481994. ^ Kriger, Robert; Kriger, Ethel (1997. Afrikaans Literature: Recollection, Redefinition, Restitution. Amsterdam: Rodopi BV. pp. 75–78. ISBN   978-9042000513. ^ Statistics South Africa - CENSUS 2001 - Census in brief" PDF. StatsSA. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2013. ^ Roskin, Roskin. Countries and concepts: an introduction to comparative politics. pp. 343–373. ^ a b "Table: Census 2001 by province, language, population group and gender. Census 2001. Statistics South Africa. Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2011. ^ a b c d Andre du Toit & Hermann Giliomee. Afrikaner Political Thought: Analysis and Documents, Volume One (1780 - 1850) 1983 ed. pp. 1–305. ISBN   0908396716. ^ a b Blok, Petrus Johannes (1970. History of the People of the Netherlands, Volume Four. New York: AMS Press. p. 526. ISBN   978-1-330-44171-8. ^ a b c d e f Ward, Kerry (2009. Networks of Empire: Forced Migration in the Dutch East India Company. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 322–342. ISBN   978-0-521-88586-7. ^ a b c Van Rossum, Matthias; Kamp, Jeannette (2016. Desertion in the Early Modern World: A Comparative History. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 188–197. ISBN   978-1474215992. ^ a b Lucas, Gavin (2004. An Archaeology of Colonial Identity: Power and Material Culture in the Dwars Valley, South Africa. New York: Springer, Publishers. pp. 29–33. ISBN   978-0306485381. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Geyl, Pieter (1964. The Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century, Part Two. New York: Barnes & Noble, Incorporated. pp. 66–67, 356–364. ISBN   978-0510269319. ^ Thomason, Sarah Grey; Kaufman, Terrence (1988) Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics, University of California Press (published 1991) pp. 252–254, ISBN   0-520-07893-4 ^ Morris, Michael and Linnegar, John with the South Africa Ministry of Education, Human Sciences Research Council, Social Cohesion & Integration Research Programme. 2004. Every Step of the Way: the journey to freedom in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC Press, pp. 184–185. ISBN   978-0-7969-2061-4 ^ Lambert, David (2009. The Protestant International and the Huguenot Migration to Virginia. New York: Peter Land Publishing, Incorporated. pp. 32–34. ISBN   978-1433107597. ^ a b Denis, Phillipe (2003. Van Ruymbeke, Bertrand; Sparks, Randy (eds. Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France and the Atlantic Diaspora. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 285–303. ISBN   978-1-57003-484-8. ^ a b c d Kruijtzer, Gijs (ed. Geert Oostindie. Dutch Colonialism, Migration and Cultural Heritage: Past and Present (2008 ed. KITLV Press. p. 115. ISBN   978-9067183178. ^ Mbenga, Bernard; Giliomee, Hermann (2007. New History of South Africa. Cape Town: Tafelburg, Publishers. pp. 59–60. ISBN   978-0624043591. ^ Briggs, Philip (2014. Top Ten: Cape Town and the Winelands. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 31. ISBN   978-0-756661-472. ^ Collins, Robert; Burns, James (2007. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. pp. 288–293. ISBN   978-1107628519. ^ a b Bradley, John; Bradley, Liz; Vidar, Jon; Fine, Victoria (2011. Cape Town: Winelands & the Garden Route. Madison, Wisconsin: Modern Overland, LLC. pp. 13–19. ISBN   978-1609871222. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Patterson, Shiela (2004. The Last Trek: A Study of the Boer People and the Afrikaner Nation. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 6–16. ISBN   978-0415329996. ^ Giliomee, Hermann (1991. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 21–28. ISBN   978-0520074200. ^ Ross, Robert (1999. Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750–1870: A Tragedy of Manners. Philadelphia: Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–58. ISBN   978-0521621229. ^ a b Nierstrasz, Chris (2012. In the Shadow of the Company: The Dutch East India Company and Its Servants in the Period of Its Decline (1740-1796. Leiden: Brill. pp. 1–2. ISBN   978-9004234291. ^ a b c d e f g h Lloyd, Trevor Owen (1997. The British Empire, 1558-1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 201–206. ISBN   978-0198731337. ^ a b c Arquilla, John (2011. Insurgents, Raiders, and Bandits: How Masters of Irregular Warfare Have Shaped Our World. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. pp. 130–142. ISBN   978-1566638326. ^ a b c d e Laband, John (2005. The Transvaal Rebellion: The First Boer War, 1880-1881. Abingdon: Routledge Books. pp. 10–13. ISBN   978-0582772618. ^ Stapleton, Timothy (2013. A Military History of Africa. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 27–31. ISBN   978-0313395703. ^ a b Abulof, Uriel (2015. The Mortality and Morality of Nations: Jews, Afrikaners, and French-Canadians. pp. 234–235. ISBN   978-1107097070. ^ Battle of Blood River. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brian M. Du Toit (1998. The Boers in East Africa: Ethnicity and Identity. Westport, CT: Bergin & Gavey. ^ a b "The Boers at the End of the World…Not Your Usual SA Expats. SA People News. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015. "Don't cry for me Orania. South Africa: The Times. 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2008... Vertel my van SA, Afrikaans. Tell me of SA, Afrikaans. Beeld (in Afrikaans. 26 July 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013. Haar voorouers het in 1903 ná die Anglo-Boere-oorlog na Sarmiento in die Patagonië-streek verhuis. ^ The thirstland trekkers in Angola – Some reflections on a frontier society" PDF. University of London. Retrieved 12 March 2013. Petrus Johannes van der Merwe, Ons Halfeeu in Angola (1880–1928) our half century in Angola) Johannesburg 1951 Nicolas Stassen: The Boers in Angola, 1928 – 1975 Protea Boekhuis, Pretoria 2011 ^ Title Unknown. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. ^ a b c "van Rensburg trek leader to Kenya. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. "GREAT BRITAIN: In Kenya Colony. Time. 15 October 1934. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010. ^ a b c d Greeff, Jaco Maree (2007. Deconstructing Jaco: Genetic Heritage of an Afrikaner" PDF. Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (5) 674–688. doi: 10. 1111/j. 1469-1809. 2007. 00363. x. PMID   17521310. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2010. ^ Erasmus, Christoff. "Genetic Heritage, MT DNA and Y-Chromosomes. The Genealogical Society of South Africa. Retrieved 23 September 2014. ^ Kennelly, Brian (2005. Beauty in Bastardy: Breytenbach on Afrikaans and the Afrikaners. Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies. UTSePress. 2 (2. 5130/portal. v2i2. 77. Retrieved 12 March 2013. ^ Geslagsregister van die familie PELSER, PELSTER, PELSZER, PELTSER, PELTZER en PELZER in Suid-Afrika sedert 1708 deur R. DE V. PIENAAR, Stellenbosch, 2004. Page 8. ^ Johannes August Heese (1907–1990. Stellenbosch Archived from the original on 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013. ^ van Aswegen, HJ. History of South Africa to 1854 (1993 ed. Van Schaik Publishers. p. 79. ISBN   978-0627019524. ^ a b c d Shell, Robert (1992) Tender Ties: Women and the slave household, 1652-1834. Collected Seminar Papers. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 42. pp. 1-33. ISSN   0076-0773. ^ RootsWeb: SOUTH-AFRICA-L RE: SA's most popular surnames. Retrieved 12 May 2014. ^ Hollfelder et al. 2019, Patterns of African and Asian admixture in the Afrikaner population of South Africa" Motale, Phalane (10 December 2012. Proudly 'boer' – A lifestyle in tatters. Sunday World. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013. ^ De Vries, Anastasia (26 February 2005. Dié swart Afrikaners woon al jare op hul 'bloedgrond. These black Afrikaners have lived on their 'blood ground' for years. Rapport (in Afrikaans. Archived from the original on 1 December 2013. "Stryd is nou teen plakkers" Battle is against squatters now. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013. ^ Rhode, Sandra (2013. The people of Onverwacht. In Landman, Christina (ed. Oral history: Heritage and identity (PDF. Pretoria: Research Institute for Theology and Religion. pp. 7–10. ISBN   9781868887378. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013. ^ Lodge, Tom (1983. Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945. New York: Longman. ^ De Klerk dismantles apartheid in South Africa. Retrieved 21 February 2009. ^ Employment Equity Act, 1998. Act   No. 55   of   1998. Parliament of the Republic of South Africa. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015 – via ^ Simon Wood meets the people who lost most when Mandela won in South Africa. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ Foreign Correspondent - 30/05/2006: South Africa - Poor Whites. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2015. ^ Over 1000 Boer Farmers in South Africa Have Been Murdered Since 1991. Genocide Watch. Archived from the original on 30 December 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2005. ^ Lestrada-Jefferis, Joyce (2000. Employment trends in agriculture in South Africa" PDF. pp. 98–99. Retrieved 16 October 2019. ^ McDougall, Dan (28 March 2010. White farmers 'being wiped out. The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011 – via Times Online. ^ Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006. Million whites leave SA - study. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013. ^ Boers are moving north — News — Mail & Guardian Online. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. ^ a b International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2001) Population project ^ James Brooke (15 September 2011. Afrikaner Farmers Migrating to Georgia, Africa, English. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2011. ^ Bolotsky, Denis (23 November 2018. To the Rescue' Russian Activist Travels to South Africa to Help Boer Minority. Sputnik. Retrieved 22 April 2019. ^ South Africa on its knees: over a million people are descending on Bloemfontein for massive prayer gathering. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017. ^ 1. permanent dead link] "M-Net — Mk. 1 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011. ^ Afrikaners in the Afrikaans Wikipedia ^ Die Voortrekkers se Amptelike Afrikaanse. Retrieved 18 November 2017. ^ X still drawn along racial lines. Retrieved 18 November 2017. ^ Afrikaner Independence (1) Interview With Freedom Front General-Secretary Col. Piet Uys Global Politician. 24 May 2005 Archived 3 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine ^ 2] Archived 29 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Further reading [ edit] Botha, Anton I (11 March 2011. Ek is 'n Boer…or am I. Thought Leader. Retrieved 14 April 2013. de Vos, Pierre (9 May 2012. A note on Afrikaners and tribalism. Constitutionally Speaking. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Gilliomee, Hermann (1989. The Beginnings of Afrikaner Ethnic Consciousness, 1850–1915. In Leroy Vail (ed. London/Berkeley: Currey University of California Press. ISBN   978-0520074200. Heese, H. (2015. Cape melting pot: The role and status of the mixed population at the Cape, 1652-1795" PDF. Translated by Robertson, Delia. First published in Afrikaans in 1985 as Groep Sonder Grense; translated, updated and annotated by Delia Robertson. ISBN   0620-34153-X. Mackenzie, S. P. (1998. Revolutionary armies in the modern era: a revisionist approach. London: Routledge. ISBN   978-0415096904. Van der Watt, Liese (1997. Savagery and civilisation' race as a signifier of difference in Afrikaner nationalist art, De Arte 55. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2011. Wills, Walter H; Barrett, R. J, eds. (1905. The Anglo-African Who's Who and Biographical Sketch-Book. London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. Retrieved 13 July 2013. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter ( link) Contains details of prominent British and Afrikaner people in the British Empire in Africa. South Africa – Poor Whites ( Australian Broadcasting Corporation: Foreign Correspondent, transcript) The Afrikaners of South Africa. (Strategy Leader Resource Kit: People Profile) South Africa (Rita M. Byrnes, ed. South Africa: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996.

I african american population decreasing. I 2c afrikaner still. I 2c afrikaner like. I 2c afrikaner go. I 2c afrikaner know. I 2c afrikaner lyrics. The Afrikaners are a South African ethnic group who are descended from 17th century Dutch, German, and French settlers to South Africa. The Afrikaners slowly developed their own language and culture when they came into contact with Africans and Asians. The word “Afrikaners” means “Africans” in Dutch. About 4 million people out of South Africas total population of 56. 5 million (2017 figures from Statistics South Africa) are white, though it's unknown if all identify themselves as Afrikaners. World Atlas estimates that 61 percent of whites in South Africa identify as Afrikaners. Regardless of their small number, Afrikaners have had a large impact on South African history. Settling in South Africa In 1652, Dutch emigrants first settled in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope to establish a station where ships traveling to the Dutch East Indies (currently Indonesia) could rest and resupply. French Protestants, German mercenaries, and other Europeans joined the Dutch in South Africa. The Afrikaners are also known as the “Boers, ” the Dutch word for “farmers. ” To aid them in agriculture, the Europeans imported slaves from places such as Malaysia and Madagascar while enslaving some local tribes, such as the Khoikhoi and San. The Great Trek For 150 years, the Dutch were the predominant foreign influence in South Africa. However, in 1795, Britain gained control of the country, and many British government officials and citizens settled there. The British angered the Afrikaners by freeing their slaves. Due to the end of slavery, border wars with natives, and the need for more fertile farmland, in the 1820s, many Afrikaner “Voortrekkers” began to migrate northward and eastward into the interior of South Africa. This journey became known as the “Great Trek. ” The Afrikaners founded the independent republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. However, many indigenous groups resented the intrusion of the Afrikaners upon their land. After several wars, the Afrikaners conquered some of the land and farmed peacefully until gold was discovered in their republics in the late 19th century. Conflict With the British The British quickly learned about the rich natural resources in the Afrikaner republics. Afrikaner and British tensions over the ownership of the land quickly escalated into the two Boer Wars. The First Boer War was fought between 1880 and 1881. The Afrikaners won the First Boer War, but the British still coveted the rich African resources. The Second Boer War was fought from 1899 to 1902. Tens of thousands of Afrikaners died due to combat, hunger, and disease. The victorious British annexed the Afrikaner republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Apartheid The Europeans in South Africa were responsible for establishing apartheid in the 20th century. The word “apartheid” means “separateness” in Afrikaans. Although the Afrikaners were the minority ethnic group in the country, the Afrikaner National Party gained control of the government in 1948. To restrict the ability of “less civilized” ethnic groups to participate in government, different races were strictly segregated. Whites had access to much better housing, education, employment, transportation, and medical care. Blacks could not vote and had no representation in government. After many decades of inequality, other countries began to condemn apartheid. The practice ended in 1994 when members of all ethnic classes were allowed to vote in the presidential election. Nelson Mandela became South Africas first black president. The Boer Diaspora After the Boer Wars, many poor, homeless Afrikaners moved into other countries in Southern Africa, such as Namibia and Zimbabwe. Some Afrikaners returned to the Netherlands, and some even moved to distant places such as South America, Australia, and the southwestern United States. Due to racial violence and in search of better educational and employment opportunities, many Afrikaners have left South Africa since the end of apartheid. About 100, 000 Afrikaners now reside in the United Kingdom. Current Afrikaner Culture Afrikaners around the world have a distinct culture. They deeply respect their history and traditions. Sports such as rugby, cricket, and golf are popular. Traditional clothing, music, and dance are celebrated. Barbecued meats and vegetables, as well as porridges influenced by indigenous African tribes, are common dishes. Current Afrikaans Language The Dutch language spoken at the Cape Colony in the 17th century slowly transformed into a separate language, with differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Today, Afrikaans, the Afrikaner language, is one of the 11 official languages of South Africa. It is spoken across the country and by people from many different races. Worldwide, about 17 million people speak Afrikaans as a first or second language, though first-language speakers are declining in number. Most Afrikaans words are of Dutch origin, but the languages of the Asian and African slaves, as well as European languages such as English, French, and Portuguese, greatly influenced the language. Many English words, such as “aardvark, ” “meerkat, ” and “trek, ” derive from Afrikaans. To reflect local languages, many South African cities with names of Afrikaner origin are now being changed. Pretoria, South Africas executive capital, may one day permanently change its name to Tshwane. The Future of the Afrikaners The Afrikaners, descended from hard-working, resourceful pioneers, have developed a rich culture and language over the past four centuries. Although the Afrikaners have been associated with the oppression of apartheid, Afrikaners today live in a multiethnic society where all races can participate in government. However, the white population in South Africa has been declining since at least 1986 and is expected to keep decreasing, as reflected in South Africa SA estimates of a loss of 112, 740 coming between 2016 and 2021.

I african love movies. Iafrikanza. This name generator will give you 10 random names for Afrikaners. Afrikaners are an ethnic group in South Africa with a population of over 3 million. They descended mostly from Dutch settlers, as well as a few settlers from other European countries, like Germany and France. As with virtually all stories of colonialism, this isn't a happy one. Turmoil, war, and greed led to bloodshed, barbaric acts, and destruction. Afrikaner names are mostly Dutch, but are often slightly different from modern Dutch names. There are some French and German influences as well, and some other cultural influences too, including some African languages, but the vast majority have their roots in the Dutch language used at the time. To start, simply click on the button to generate 10 random names. Don't like the names? Simply click again to get 10 new random names.

I 2c afrikaner see. I 2c afrikaner get. I 2c afrikaner my life. I 2c afrikaner free. I 2c afrikaner good.

  1. https://morilrimo.tk/documentary/jannes-download-full-full-movie-putlocker9-part-1-gostream.html
  2. https://gritissigpe.tk/war/the-secret-she-carried-download-full-online-free-without-signing-up-youtube.html
  3. https://xiococphosa.gq/documentary/movie-stream-into-the-night-portraits-of-life-and-death-dual-audio-free-openload-amazon-hd.html
  4. https://taisumfecoo.ml/drama/movie-stream-72-hours-in-bangkok-tamil-full-movie-watch-here-english-subtitle.html
  5. This Corrosion Online For Free Part 1 Without Membership
  6. https://gilpupopon.tk/war/dilwale-dulhaniya-le-jayenge-full-movie-gostream-gomovies-free-for-free-123movies.html